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Title: Heavy quarkonium: progress, puzzles, and opportunities

Abstract

A golden age for heavy-quarkonium physics dawned a decade ago, initiated by the confluence of exciting advances in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and an explosion of related experimental activity. The early years of this period were chronicled in the Quarkonium Working Group (QWG) CERN Yellow Report (YR) in 2004, which presented a comprehensive review of the status of the field at that time and provided specific recommendations for further progress. However, the broad spectrum of subsequent breakthroughs, surprises, and continuing puzzles could only be partially anticipated. Since the release of the YR, the BESII program concluded only to give birth to BESIII; the B-factories and CLEO-c flourished; quarkonium production and polarization measurements at HERA and the Tevatron matured; and heavy-ion collisions at RHIC have opened a window on the deconfinement regime. All these experiments leave legacies of quality, precision, and unsolved mysteries for quarkonium physics, and therefore beg for continuing investigations at BESIII, the LHC, RHIC, FAIR, the Super Flavor and/or Tau-Charm factories, JLab, the ILC, and beyond. The list of newly found conventional states expanded to include h c(1 P), χ c2(2 P), B$$ +\atop{c}$$, and η b(1 S). In addition, the unexpected and still-fascinating X(3872) has been joined by more than a dozen other charmonium- and bottomonium-like " XYZ" states that appear to lie outside the quark model. Many of these still need experimental confirmation. The plethora of new states unleashed a flood of theoretical investigations into new forms of matter such as quark-gluon hybrids, mesonic molecules, and tetraquarks. Measurements of the spectroscopy, decays, production, and in-medium behavior of $$ c\bar{a}$$, $$ b\bar{e}$$, and $$ b\bar{a}$$ bound states have been shown to validate some theoretical approaches to QCD and highlight lack of quantitative success for others. Lattice QCD has grown from a tool with computational possibilities to an industrial-strength effort now dependent more on insight and innovation than pure computational power. New effective field theories for the description of quarkonium in different regimes have been developed and brought to a high degree of sophistication, thus enabling precise and solid theoretical predictions. Many expected decays and transitions have either been measured with precision or for the first time, but the confusing patterns of decays, both above and below open-flavor thresholds, endure and have deepened. The intriguing details of quarkonium suppression in heavy-ion collisions that have emerged from RHIC have elevated the importance of separating hot- and coldnuclear- matter effects in quark-gluon plasma studies. This review systematically addresses all these matters and concludes by prioritizing directions for ongoing and future efforts.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Contributing Org.:
Quarkonium Working Group
OSTI Identifier:
1511328
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
European Physical Journal. C, Particles and Fields
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 71; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1434-6044
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS

Citation Formats

Brambilla, N., Eidelman, S., Heltsley, B. K., Vogt, R., Bodwin, G. T., Eichten, E., Frawley, A. D., Meyer, A. B., Mitchell, R. E., Papadimitriou, V., Petreczky, P., Petrov, A. A., Robbe, P., Vairo, A., Andronic, A., Arnaldi, R., Artoisenet, P., Bali, G., Bertolin, A., Bettoni, D., Brodzicka, J., Bruno, G. E., Caldwell, A., Catmore, J., Chang, C. -H., Chao, K. -T., Chudakov, E., Cortese, P., Crochet, P., Drutskoy, A., Ellwanger, U., Faccioli, P., Gabareen Mokhtar, A., Garcia i Tormo, X., Hanhart, C., Harris, F. A., Kaplan, D. M., Klein, S. R., Kowalski, H., Lansberg, J. -P., Levichev, E., Lombardo, V., Lourenço, C., Maltoni, F., Mocsy, A., Mussa, R., Navarra, F. S., Negrini, M., Nielsen, M., Olsen, S. L., Pakhlov, P., Pakhlova, G., Peters, K., Polosa, A. D., Qian, W., Qiu, J. -W., Rong, G., Sanchis-Lozano, M. A., Scomparin, E., Senger, P., Simon, F., Stracka, S., Sumino, Y., Voloshin, M., Weiss, C., Wöhri, H. K., and Yuan, C. -Z.. Heavy quarkonium: progress, puzzles, and opportunities. United States: N. p., 2011. Web. doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-010-1534-9.
Brambilla, N., Eidelman, S., Heltsley, B. K., Vogt, R., Bodwin, G. T., Eichten, E., Frawley, A. D., Meyer, A. B., Mitchell, R. E., Papadimitriou, V., Petreczky, P., Petrov, A. A., Robbe, P., Vairo, A., Andronic, A., Arnaldi, R., Artoisenet, P., Bali, G., Bertolin, A., Bettoni, D., Brodzicka, J., Bruno, G. E., Caldwell, A., Catmore, J., Chang, C. -H., Chao, K. -T., Chudakov, E., Cortese, P., Crochet, P., Drutskoy, A., Ellwanger, U., Faccioli, P., Gabareen Mokhtar, A., Garcia i Tormo, X., Hanhart, C., Harris, F. A., Kaplan, D. M., Klein, S. R., Kowalski, H., Lansberg, J. -P., Levichev, E., Lombardo, V., Lourenço, C., Maltoni, F., Mocsy, A., Mussa, R., Navarra, F. S., Negrini, M., Nielsen, M., Olsen, S. L., Pakhlov, P., Pakhlova, G., Peters, K., Polosa, A. D., Qian, W., Qiu, J. -W., Rong, G., Sanchis-Lozano, M. A., Scomparin, E., Senger, P., Simon, F., Stracka, S., Sumino, Y., Voloshin, M., Weiss, C., Wöhri, H. K., & Yuan, C. -Z.. Heavy quarkonium: progress, puzzles, and opportunities. United States. doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-010-1534-9.
Brambilla, N., Eidelman, S., Heltsley, B. K., Vogt, R., Bodwin, G. T., Eichten, E., Frawley, A. D., Meyer, A. B., Mitchell, R. E., Papadimitriou, V., Petreczky, P., Petrov, A. A., Robbe, P., Vairo, A., Andronic, A., Arnaldi, R., Artoisenet, P., Bali, G., Bertolin, A., Bettoni, D., Brodzicka, J., Bruno, G. E., Caldwell, A., Catmore, J., Chang, C. -H., Chao, K. -T., Chudakov, E., Cortese, P., Crochet, P., Drutskoy, A., Ellwanger, U., Faccioli, P., Gabareen Mokhtar, A., Garcia i Tormo, X., Hanhart, C., Harris, F. A., Kaplan, D. M., Klein, S. R., Kowalski, H., Lansberg, J. -P., Levichev, E., Lombardo, V., Lourenço, C., Maltoni, F., Mocsy, A., Mussa, R., Navarra, F. S., Negrini, M., Nielsen, M., Olsen, S. L., Pakhlov, P., Pakhlova, G., Peters, K., Polosa, A. D., Qian, W., Qiu, J. -W., Rong, G., Sanchis-Lozano, M. A., Scomparin, E., Senger, P., Simon, F., Stracka, S., Sumino, Y., Voloshin, M., Weiss, C., Wöhri, H. K., and Yuan, C. -Z.. Tue . "Heavy quarkonium: progress, puzzles, and opportunities". United States. doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-010-1534-9. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1511328.
@article{osti_1511328,
title = {Heavy quarkonium: progress, puzzles, and opportunities},
author = {Brambilla, N. and Eidelman, S. and Heltsley, B. K. and Vogt, R. and Bodwin, G. T. and Eichten, E. and Frawley, A. D. and Meyer, A. B. and Mitchell, R. E. and Papadimitriou, V. and Petreczky, P. and Petrov, A. A. and Robbe, P. and Vairo, A. and Andronic, A. and Arnaldi, R. and Artoisenet, P. and Bali, G. and Bertolin, A. and Bettoni, D. and Brodzicka, J. and Bruno, G. E. and Caldwell, A. and Catmore, J. and Chang, C. -H. and Chao, K. -T. and Chudakov, E. and Cortese, P. and Crochet, P. and Drutskoy, A. and Ellwanger, U. and Faccioli, P. and Gabareen Mokhtar, A. and Garcia i Tormo, X. and Hanhart, C. and Harris, F. A. and Kaplan, D. M. and Klein, S. R. and Kowalski, H. and Lansberg, J. -P. and Levichev, E. and Lombardo, V. and Lourenço, C. and Maltoni, F. and Mocsy, A. and Mussa, R. and Navarra, F. S. and Negrini, M. and Nielsen, M. and Olsen, S. L. and Pakhlov, P. and Pakhlova, G. and Peters, K. and Polosa, A. D. and Qian, W. and Qiu, J. -W. and Rong, G. and Sanchis-Lozano, M. A. and Scomparin, E. and Senger, P. and Simon, F. and Stracka, S. and Sumino, Y. and Voloshin, M. and Weiss, C. and Wöhri, H. K. and Yuan, C. -Z.},
abstractNote = {A golden age for heavy-quarkonium physics dawned a decade ago, initiated by the confluence of exciting advances in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and an explosion of related experimental activity. The early years of this period were chronicled in the Quarkonium Working Group (QWG) CERN Yellow Report (YR) in 2004, which presented a comprehensive review of the status of the field at that time and provided specific recommendations for further progress. However, the broad spectrum of subsequent breakthroughs, surprises, and continuing puzzles could only be partially anticipated. Since the release of the YR, the BESII program concluded only to give birth to BESIII; the B-factories and CLEO-c flourished; quarkonium production and polarization measurements at HERA and the Tevatron matured; and heavy-ion collisions at RHIC have opened a window on the deconfinement regime. All these experiments leave legacies of quality, precision, and unsolved mysteries for quarkonium physics, and therefore beg for continuing investigations at BESIII, the LHC, RHIC, FAIR, the Super Flavor and/or Tau-Charm factories, JLab, the ILC, and beyond. The list of newly found conventional states expanded to include hc(1P), χc2(2P), B$ +\atop{c}$, and ηb(1S). In addition, the unexpected and still-fascinating X(3872) has been joined by more than a dozen other charmonium- and bottomonium-like "XYZ" states that appear to lie outside the quark model. Many of these still need experimental confirmation. The plethora of new states unleashed a flood of theoretical investigations into new forms of matter such as quark-gluon hybrids, mesonic molecules, and tetraquarks. Measurements of the spectroscopy, decays, production, and in-medium behavior of $ c\bar{a}$, $ b\bar{e}$, and $ b\bar{a}$ bound states have been shown to validate some theoretical approaches to QCD and highlight lack of quantitative success for others. Lattice QCD has grown from a tool with computational possibilities to an industrial-strength effort now dependent more on insight and innovation than pure computational power. New effective field theories for the description of quarkonium in different regimes have been developed and brought to a high degree of sophistication, thus enabling precise and solid theoretical predictions. Many expected decays and transitions have either been measured with precision or for the first time, but the confusing patterns of decays, both above and below open-flavor thresholds, endure and have deepened. The intriguing details of quarkonium suppression in heavy-ion collisions that have emerged from RHIC have elevated the importance of separating hot- and coldnuclear- matter effects in quark-gluon plasma studies. This review systematically addresses all these matters and concludes by prioritizing directions for ongoing and future efforts.},
doi = {10.1140/epjc/s10052-010-1534-9},
journal = {European Physical Journal. C, Particles and Fields},
number = 2,
volume = 71,
place = {United States},
year = {2011},
month = {2}
}

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