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Title: p-type doping efficiency in CdTe: Influence of second phase formation

Abstract

Cadmium telluride (CdTe) high purity, bulk, crystal ingots doped with phosphorus were grown by the vertical Bridgman melt growth technique to understand and improve dopant solubility and activation. We report that large net carrier densities have been reproducibly obtained from as-grown ingots, indicating successful incorporation of dopants into the lattice. However, net carrier density values are orders of magnitude lower than the solubility of P in CdTe as reported in literature, 1018/cm3 to 1019/cm3 [J. H. Greenberg, J. Cryst. Growth 161, 1–11 (1996) and R. B. Hall and H. H. Woodbury, J. Appl. Phys. 39(12), 5361–5365 (1968)], despite comparable starting charge dopant densities. Growth conditions, such as melt stoichiometry and post growth cooling, are shown to have significant impacts on dopant solubility. This study demonstrates that a significant portion of the dopant becomes incorporated into second phase defects as compounds of cadmium and phosphorous, such as cadmium phosphide, which inhibits dopant incorporation into the lattice and limits maximum attainable net carrier density in bulk crystals. In this paper, we present an extensive study on the characteristics of these second phase defects in relation to their composition and formation kinetics while providing a pathway to minimize their formation and enhance solubility.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [3]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)
  2. National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States)
  3. Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1511162
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1418400
Grant/Contract Number:  
EE0007537; AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Applied Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 123; Journal Issue: 16; Journal ID: ISSN 0021-8979
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

McCoy, Jedidiah J., Swain, Santosh K., Sieber, John R., Diercks, David R., Gorman, Brian P., and Lynn, Kelvin G. p-type doping efficiency in CdTe: Influence of second phase formation. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5002144.
McCoy, Jedidiah J., Swain, Santosh K., Sieber, John R., Diercks, David R., Gorman, Brian P., & Lynn, Kelvin G. p-type doping efficiency in CdTe: Influence of second phase formation. United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5002144
McCoy, Jedidiah J., Swain, Santosh K., Sieber, John R., Diercks, David R., Gorman, Brian P., and Lynn, Kelvin G. Mon . "p-type doping efficiency in CdTe: Influence of second phase formation". United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5002144. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1511162.
@article{osti_1511162,
title = {p-type doping efficiency in CdTe: Influence of second phase formation},
author = {McCoy, Jedidiah J. and Swain, Santosh K. and Sieber, John R. and Diercks, David R. and Gorman, Brian P. and Lynn, Kelvin G.},
abstractNote = {Cadmium telluride (CdTe) high purity, bulk, crystal ingots doped with phosphorus were grown by the vertical Bridgman melt growth technique to understand and improve dopant solubility and activation. We report that large net carrier densities have been reproducibly obtained from as-grown ingots, indicating successful incorporation of dopants into the lattice. However, net carrier density values are orders of magnitude lower than the solubility of P in CdTe as reported in literature, 1018/cm3 to 1019/cm3 [J. H. Greenberg, J. Cryst. Growth 161, 1–11 (1996) and R. B. Hall and H. H. Woodbury, J. Appl. Phys. 39(12), 5361–5365 (1968)], despite comparable starting charge dopant densities. Growth conditions, such as melt stoichiometry and post growth cooling, are shown to have significant impacts on dopant solubility. This study demonstrates that a significant portion of the dopant becomes incorporated into second phase defects as compounds of cadmium and phosphorous, such as cadmium phosphide, which inhibits dopant incorporation into the lattice and limits maximum attainable net carrier density in bulk crystals. In this paper, we present an extensive study on the characteristics of these second phase defects in relation to their composition and formation kinetics while providing a pathway to minimize their formation and enhance solubility.},
doi = {10.1063/1.5002144},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = 16,
volume = 123,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {1}
}

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Figures / Tables:

Table I Table I: Calculated initial atomic concentrations of phosphorus and excess cadmium and tellurium per growth, alongside the measured post-growth activated densities. Activated densities taken from samples representative of the overall ingot. Uncertainty of the activated density is a combined standard uncertainty of measurement repeatability, measurements of currents and voltages, andmore » wafer thickness.« less

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Study on a co-doped CdZnTe crystal containing Yb and In
    journal, January 2019


      Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.