skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Axial plasma jet characterization on a microsecond x-pinch

Abstract

The jets produced on a microsecond x-pinch (quarter period T1/4 ~ 1 μs, dI/dt ~ 0.35 kA/ns) have been studied through light-field schlieren imaging and optical framing photographs across 4 different materials: Al, Ti, Mo, and W. The axial velocity of the jets was measured and exhibited no dependence on atomic number (Z) of the wire material. Additionally, there may be a dependence on another factor(s), namely, the current rise rate. The average axial jet velocity across all four materials was measured to be 2.9 ± 0.5 × 106 cm/s. The average jet diameter and the average radial jet expansion rate displayed inverse relationships with Z, which may be attributed to radiative cooling and inertia. Asymmetry between the anode and cathode jet behavior was observed and is thought to be caused by electron beam activity. The mean divergence angle of the jet was found to vary with wire material and correlated inversely with the thermal conductivity of the cold wire. Optical images indicated a two-layer structure in Al jets which may be caused by standing shocks and resemble phenomena observed in astrophysical jet formation and collimation. Finally, kinks in the jets have also been observed which may be caused bymore » m = 1 MHD instability modes or by the interaction of the jet with the electrode plasma.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1]
  1. Florida A&M Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Florida A&M Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES)
OSTI Identifier:
1511160
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1440276
Grant/Contract Number:  
FG02-03ER54725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Applied Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 123; Journal Issue: 21; Journal ID: ISSN 0021-8979
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Jaar, G. S., and Appartaim, R. K. Axial plasma jet characterization on a microsecond x-pinch. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5026376.
Jaar, G. S., & Appartaim, R. K. Axial plasma jet characterization on a microsecond x-pinch. United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5026376
Jaar, G. S., and Appartaim, R. K. Mon . "Axial plasma jet characterization on a microsecond x-pinch". United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5026376. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1511160.
@article{osti_1511160,
title = {Axial plasma jet characterization on a microsecond x-pinch},
author = {Jaar, G. S. and Appartaim, R. K.},
abstractNote = {The jets produced on a microsecond x-pinch (quarter period T1/4 ~ 1 μs, dI/dt ~ 0.35 kA/ns) have been studied through light-field schlieren imaging and optical framing photographs across 4 different materials: Al, Ti, Mo, and W. The axial velocity of the jets was measured and exhibited no dependence on atomic number (Z) of the wire material. Additionally, there may be a dependence on another factor(s), namely, the current rise rate. The average axial jet velocity across all four materials was measured to be 2.9 ± 0.5 × 106 cm/s. The average jet diameter and the average radial jet expansion rate displayed inverse relationships with Z, which may be attributed to radiative cooling and inertia. Asymmetry between the anode and cathode jet behavior was observed and is thought to be caused by electron beam activity. The mean divergence angle of the jet was found to vary with wire material and correlated inversely with the thermal conductivity of the cold wire. Optical images indicated a two-layer structure in Al jets which may be caused by standing shocks and resemble phenomena observed in astrophysical jet formation and collimation. Finally, kinks in the jets have also been observed which may be caused by m = 1 MHD instability modes or by the interaction of the jet with the electrode plasma.},
doi = {10.1063/1.5026376},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = 21,
volume = 123,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {6}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Figures / Tables:

FIG. 1 FIG. 1: Schlieren image of a 25 $\mu$m Cu x-pinch. Typical x-pinch features can be clearly seen, notably: the creation and expansion of the limb coronal plasma, formation and propagation of axial plasma jets, constriction at the crossing point leading to the formation of a micro z-pinch plasma column, andmore » the presence of virtual plasma electrodes. The top left number indicates the shot number, and the bottom numbers indicate the timing of the image relative to the start of the current and in parenthesis relative to the onset of x-ray emission. In this image, the anode is on the bottom and the cathode on top.« less

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

High-Resolution Laser Schlieren Imaging of Coronal Plasma Evolution in 80-kA $X$-Pinches
journal, August 2008

  • Bott, S. C.; Haas, D. M.; Ueda, U.
  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. 36, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1109/TPS.2008.924409

Outflow collimation in young stellar objects
journal, December 1997

  • Mellema, Garrelt; Frank, Adam
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 292, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/292.4.795

X-pinch. Part I
journal, April 2015


X-pinch. Part II
journal, June 2015


Supersonic jet formation and propagation in x-pinches
journal, January 2011


Beam deviation method as a diagnostic tool for the plasma focus
journal, January 1978


Characterization of wire x pinches driven by a microsecond-long capacitive discharge
journal, June 2000

  • Christou, C.; Dangor, A. E.; Hammer, D. A.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 87, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.373541

X-rays from a microsecond X-pinch
journal, August 2013

  • Appartaim, R. K.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 114, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4819176

Investigation of the plasma jet formation in X-pinch plasmas using laser interferometry
journal, December 2000

  • Mitchell, I. H.; Aliaga-Rossel, R.; Saavedra, R.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 7, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1321317

Collimation of Astrophysical Jets: The Proto–Planetary Nebula H[CLC]e[/CLC] [CSC]3-1475[/CSC]
journal, June 1997

  • Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Blondin, John M.; Harrington, J. Patrick
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 482, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/310679

X-pinch x-ray sources driven by a 1μs capacitor discharge
journal, July 2008

  • Appartaim, R. K.; Maakuu, B. T.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 15, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2953800

Laboratory Astrophysics and Collimated Stellar Outflows: The Production of Radiatively Cooled Hypersonic Plasma Jets
journal, January 2002

  • Lebedev, S. V.; Chittenden, J. P.; Beg, F. N.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 564, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/324183

Irradiated Herbig‐Haro Jets in the Orion Nebula and near NGC 1333
journal, January 2001

  • Bally, John; Reipurth, Bo
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 546, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/318258

Jet Formation and Current Transfer in$X$-Pinches
journal, October 2006

  • Beg, F. N.; Ciardi, A.; Ross, I.
  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. 34, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1109/TPS.2006.878360

    Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.