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Title: Neutrinos from Beta Processes in a Presupernova: Probing the Isotopic Evolution of a Massive Star

Abstract

We present a new calculation of the neutrino flux received at Earth from a massive star in the ~24 hr of evolution prior to its explosion as a supernova (presupernova). Using the stellar evolution code MESA, the neutrino emissivity in each flavor is calculated at many radial zones and time steps. In addition to thermal processes, neutrino production via beta processes is modeled in detail, using a network of 204 isotopes. We find that the total produced $${\nu }_{e}$$ flux has a high-energy spectrum tail, at $$E\gtrsim 3\mbox{--}4\,\mathrm{MeV}$$, which is mostly due to decay and electron capture on isotopes with $$A=50\mbox{--}60$$. In a tentative window of observability of $$E\gtrsim 0.5\,\mathrm{MeV}$$ and $$t\lt 2$$ hr pre-collapse, the contribution of beta processes to the $${\nu }_{e}$$ flux is at the level of ~90%. For a star at D = 1 kpc distance, a 17 kt liquid scintillator detector would typically observe several tens of events from a presupernova, of which up to ~30% is due to beta processes. These processes dominate the signal at a liquid argon detector, thus greatly enhancing its sensitivity to a presupernova.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4]
  1. Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
  2. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)
  3. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands)
  4. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Joint Inst. for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA), East Lansing, MI (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1511011
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0015406
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 851; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

Patton, Kelly M., Lunardini, Cecilia, Farmer, Robert J., and Timmes, F. X. Neutrinos from Beta Processes in a Presupernova: Probing the Isotopic Evolution of a Massive Star. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa95c4.
Patton, Kelly M., Lunardini, Cecilia, Farmer, Robert J., & Timmes, F. X. Neutrinos from Beta Processes in a Presupernova: Probing the Isotopic Evolution of a Massive Star. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa95c4.
Patton, Kelly M., Lunardini, Cecilia, Farmer, Robert J., and Timmes, F. X. Tue . "Neutrinos from Beta Processes in a Presupernova: Probing the Isotopic Evolution of a Massive Star". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa95c4. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1511011.
@article{osti_1511011,
title = {Neutrinos from Beta Processes in a Presupernova: Probing the Isotopic Evolution of a Massive Star},
author = {Patton, Kelly M. and Lunardini, Cecilia and Farmer, Robert J. and Timmes, F. X.},
abstractNote = {We present a new calculation of the neutrino flux received at Earth from a massive star in the ~24 hr of evolution prior to its explosion as a supernova (presupernova). Using the stellar evolution code MESA, the neutrino emissivity in each flavor is calculated at many radial zones and time steps. In addition to thermal processes, neutrino production via beta processes is modeled in detail, using a network of 204 isotopes. We find that the total produced ${\nu }_{e}$ flux has a high-energy spectrum tail, at $E\gtrsim 3\mbox{--}4\,\mathrm{MeV}$, which is mostly due to decay and electron capture on isotopes with $A=50\mbox{--}60$. In a tentative window of observability of $E\gtrsim 0.5\,\mathrm{MeV}$ and $t\lt 2$ hr pre-collapse, the contribution of beta processes to the ${\nu }_{e}$ flux is at the level of ~90%. For a star at D = 1 kpc distance, a 17 kt liquid scintillator detector would typically observe several tens of events from a presupernova, of which up to ~30% is due to beta processes. These processes dominate the signal at a liquid argon detector, thus greatly enhancing its sensitivity to a presupernova.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/aa95c4},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 851,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {12}
}

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