skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Turning a pyroelectric infrared motion sensor into a high-accuracy presence detector by using a narrow semi-transparent chopper

Abstract

Pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensors are the most popular presence detectors. However, their applications are limited to motion detection only, as the pyroelectric sensing element is only sensitive to radiated heat power fluctuation. Here, this letter reports a chopped PIR (C-PIR) presence sensor, capable of detecting both the stationary and the moving occupants at high accuracy by introducing a narrow semi-transparent optical chopper to shutter the incident radiation periodically. More importantly, even though the narrow chopper can efficiently shutter the unidirectional infrared (IR) power radiated by stationary occupants, it has near-zero influence on the omnidirectional power radiated from the ambient environment. Therefore, the voltage difference generated by the C-PIR sensor between occupied and unoccupied scenarios can be directly used for identifying the presence of stationary occupants with high-accuracy. For moving occupant detection, the optical chopper can barely affect the variation of the radiated power and thus lead to the same high-accuracy detection as the on-board PIR. An approximate theoretical model is created to illustrate the physics and dynamics of IR radiation shuttered by the optical chopper. Parametric studies, experimental characterization, and empirical analysis were performed to obtain the optimal setting of the chopper in terms of its thickness and chopping frequency.more » Experimental results reveal that the C-PIR sensor can detect stationary occupants for up to 4.0 m and moving occupants for up to 8.0 m, while maintaining an accuracy of 100%. The field of view of the C-PIR was found at 110° horizontally and 90° vertically, consistent with that of the on-board PIR sensor.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2]
  1. Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
  2. Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Stony Brook, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E)
OSTI Identifier:
1510954
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1412622
Grant/Contract Number:  
AR0000531
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 111; Journal Issue: 24; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION

Citation Formats

Liu, Haili, Wang, Ya, Wang, Kevin, and Lin, Hanbing. Turning a pyroelectric infrared motion sensor into a high-accuracy presence detector by using a narrow semi-transparent chopper. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4998430.
Liu, Haili, Wang, Ya, Wang, Kevin, & Lin, Hanbing. Turning a pyroelectric infrared motion sensor into a high-accuracy presence detector by using a narrow semi-transparent chopper. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4998430.
Liu, Haili, Wang, Ya, Wang, Kevin, and Lin, Hanbing. Mon . "Turning a pyroelectric infrared motion sensor into a high-accuracy presence detector by using a narrow semi-transparent chopper". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4998430. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1510954.
@article{osti_1510954,
title = {Turning a pyroelectric infrared motion sensor into a high-accuracy presence detector by using a narrow semi-transparent chopper},
author = {Liu, Haili and Wang, Ya and Wang, Kevin and Lin, Hanbing},
abstractNote = {Pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensors are the most popular presence detectors. However, their applications are limited to motion detection only, as the pyroelectric sensing element is only sensitive to radiated heat power fluctuation. Here, this letter reports a chopped PIR (C-PIR) presence sensor, capable of detecting both the stationary and the moving occupants at high accuracy by introducing a narrow semi-transparent optical chopper to shutter the incident radiation periodically. More importantly, even though the narrow chopper can efficiently shutter the unidirectional infrared (IR) power radiated by stationary occupants, it has near-zero influence on the omnidirectional power radiated from the ambient environment. Therefore, the voltage difference generated by the C-PIR sensor between occupied and unoccupied scenarios can be directly used for identifying the presence of stationary occupants with high-accuracy. For moving occupant detection, the optical chopper can barely affect the variation of the radiated power and thus lead to the same high-accuracy detection as the on-board PIR. An approximate theoretical model is created to illustrate the physics and dynamics of IR radiation shuttered by the optical chopper. Parametric studies, experimental characterization, and empirical analysis were performed to obtain the optimal setting of the chopper in terms of its thickness and chopping frequency. Experimental results reveal that the C-PIR sensor can detect stationary occupants for up to 4.0 m and moving occupants for up to 8.0 m, while maintaining an accuracy of 100%. The field of view of the C-PIR was found at 110° horizontally and 90° vertically, consistent with that of the on-board PIR sensor.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4998430},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 24,
volume = 111,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {12}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 4 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Figures / Tables:

FIG. 1 FIG. 1: (a) Schematic diagram of the C-PIR sensor; (b) one sensing element is radiated by the varying power (left) and a voltage source follower (right); RL is the resistance of the gate and the load; CE and CA represent the capacitance of the sensing element and the amplifier; ipmore » is the current output of the pyroelectric element; US is the voltage supply; (c) the top view and (d) the front view of the C-PIR sensor; (e) the variation of the radiated power on the dual sensing elements; (f) the output voltage from the dual pyroelectric elements (not an ideal sinusoid waveform).« less

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Occupancy Inference Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors Through Hidden Markov Models
journal, February 2016

  • Liu, Pengcheng; Nguang, Sing-Kiong; Partridge, Ashton
  • IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 16, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1109/JSEN.2015.2496154

Development of a Sensing Module for Standing and Moving Human Body Using a Shutter and PIR Sensor
journal, July 2016

  • Juan, Ronnie O. Serfa; Kim, Jin Su; Sa, Yui Hwan
  • International Journal of Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering, Vol. 11, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.14257/ijmue.2016.11.7.05

Pyroelectric devices and materials
journal, December 1986


Detecting Direction of Movement Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors
journal, May 2014


Pyroelectric infrared sensor-based thermometer for monitoring indoor objects
journal, December 2003

  • Tsai, C. F.; Young, M. S.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 74, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1626005

Single crystal diamond for infrared sensing applications
journal, October 2014

  • Majdi, S.; Kolahdouz, M.; Moeen, M.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 105, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4899278

BLUESOUND: A New Resident Identification Sensor—Using Ultrasound Array and BLE Technology for Smart Home Platform
journal, March 2017

  • Mokhtari, Ghassem; Zhang, Qing; Nourbakhsh, Ghavameddin
  • IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 17, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1109/JSEN.2017.2647960

Fusion of Different Height Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors for Person Identification
journal, January 2016


The Case for Efficient and Robust RF-Based Device-Free Localization
journal, September 2016

  • Xu, Chenren; Firner, Bernhard; Zhang, Yanyong
  • IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, Vol. 15, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1109/TMC.2015.2493522

People occupancy detection and profiling with 3D depth sensors for building energy management
journal, April 2015


Graphene-Based Thermopile for Thermal Imaging Applications
journal, October 2015


Non-intrusive activity assessment of a vulnerable individual for real living environments
journal, March 2008


    Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.