skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Continuous roll-to-roll fabrication of organic photovoltaic cells via interconnected high-vacuum and low-pressure organic vapor phase deposition systems

Abstract

We demonstrate continuous roll-to-roll (R2R) fabrication of single junction and tandem organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells on flexible plastic substrates employing a system that integrates organic deposition by high vacuum thermal evaporation (VTE) and low pressure organic vapor phase deposition (OVPD). By moving the substrate from chamber to chamber and then depositing films on stationary substrates, we achieve power conversion efficiencies of PCE = 8.6 ± 0.3% and 8.9 ± 0.2% for the single junction and tandem cells, respectively. Single junction OPVs are also fabricated on a continuously translating substrate at 0.3 cm/s, to achieve PCE = 8.5 ± 0.2%. Thin films grown on translating substrates by OVPD show <3% thickness non-uniformity and 0.66 nm root mean square surface roughness, similar to that obtained by VTE. Our results suggest that R2R film deposition comprising multiple vapor deposition technologies is a promising method for rapid speed and continuous manufacturing of high quality, small molecular weight organic electronic materials.

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
  2. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1510952
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1462155
Grant/Contract Number:  
EE0006708
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 113; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING

Citation Formats

Qu, Boning, and Forrest, Stephen R. Continuous roll-to-roll fabrication of organic photovoltaic cells via interconnected high-vacuum and low-pressure organic vapor phase deposition systems. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1063/1.5039701.
Qu, Boning, & Forrest, Stephen R. Continuous roll-to-roll fabrication of organic photovoltaic cells via interconnected high-vacuum and low-pressure organic vapor phase deposition systems. United States. doi:10.1063/1.5039701.
Qu, Boning, and Forrest, Stephen R. Mon . "Continuous roll-to-roll fabrication of organic photovoltaic cells via interconnected high-vacuum and low-pressure organic vapor phase deposition systems". United States. doi:10.1063/1.5039701. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1510952.
@article{osti_1510952,
title = {Continuous roll-to-roll fabrication of organic photovoltaic cells via interconnected high-vacuum and low-pressure organic vapor phase deposition systems},
author = {Qu, Boning and Forrest, Stephen R.},
abstractNote = {We demonstrate continuous roll-to-roll (R2R) fabrication of single junction and tandem organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells on flexible plastic substrates employing a system that integrates organic deposition by high vacuum thermal evaporation (VTE) and low pressure organic vapor phase deposition (OVPD). By moving the substrate from chamber to chamber and then depositing films on stationary substrates, we achieve power conversion efficiencies of PCE = 8.6 ± 0.3% and 8.9 ± 0.2% for the single junction and tandem cells, respectively. Single junction OPVs are also fabricated on a continuously translating substrate at 0.3 cm/s, to achieve PCE = 8.5 ± 0.2%. Thin films grown on translating substrates by OVPD show <3% thickness non-uniformity and 0.66 nm root mean square surface roughness, similar to that obtained by VTE. Our results suggest that R2R film deposition comprising multiple vapor deposition technologies is a promising method for rapid speed and continuous manufacturing of high quality, small molecular weight organic electronic materials.},
doi = {10.1063/1.5039701},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 5,
volume = 113,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {7}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 2 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Organic vapor phase deposition for the growth of large area organic electronic devices
journal, December 2009

  • Lunt, Richard R.; Lassiter, Brian E.; Benziger, Jay B.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3271797

The path to ubiquitous and low-cost organic electronic appliances on plastic
journal, April 2004


Overcoming the Scaling Lag for Polymer Solar Cells
journal, October 2017


Polymer solar cell modules prepared using roll-to-roll methods: Knife-over-edge coating, slot-die coating and screen printing
journal, April 2009


A complete process for production of flexible large area polymer solar cells entirely using screen printing—First public demonstration
journal, April 2009

  • Krebs, Frederik C.; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Norrman, Kion
  • Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 93, Issue 4, p. 422-441
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2008.12.001

Combining Printing, Coating, and Vacuum Deposition on the Roll-to-Roll Scale: A Hybrid Organic Photovoltaics Fabrication
journal, January 2016

  • Griffith, Matthew J.; Cooling, Nathan A.; Vaughan, Ben
  • IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, Vol. 22, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1109/JSTQE.2015.2487968

A rational method for developing and testing stable flexible indium- and vacuum-free multilayer tandem polymer solar cells comprising up to twelve roll processed layers
journal, January 2014

  • Andersen, Thomas R.; Dam, Henrik F.; Andreasen, Birgitta
  • Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 120
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2013.07.006

Efficient Solar Cells Using All-Organic Nanocrystalline Networks
journal, December 2007


A study on thin film uniformity in a roll-to-roll thermal evaporation system for flexible OLED applications
journal, August 2017

  • Kim, Suk-Han; Lee, Moon-Yong; Woo, Kyoohee
  • International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, Vol. 18, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1007/s12541-017-0130-4

Fabrication and processing of polymer solar cells: A review of printing and coating techniques
journal, April 2009


Roll-to-Roll Printed Large-Area All-Polymer Solar Cells with 5% Efficiency Based on a Low Crystallinity Conjugated Polymer Blend
journal, March 2017


Roll-to-roll production of organic solar cells
conference, September 2017

  • Uhrich, Christian L.; Pfeiffer, Martin; Weiß, Andre
  • Organic, Hybrid, and Perovskite Photovoltaics XVIII
  • DOI: 10.1117/12.2273833

Morphology control and material mixing by high-temperature organic vapor-phase deposition and its application to thin-film solar cells
journal, July 2005

  • Yang, Fan; Shtein, Max; Forrest, Stephen R.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 98, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1941480

Material transport regimes and mechanisms for growth of molecular organic thin films using low-pressure organic vapor phase deposition
journal, January 2001

  • Shtein, Max; Gossenberger, Herman F.; Benziger, Jay B.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 89, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1332419

Charge transport and exciton dissociation in organic solar cells consisting of dipolar donors mixed with C 70
journal, August 2015


Effect of Mixed Layer Crystallinity on the Performance of Mixed Heterojunction Organic Photovoltaic Cells
journal, February 2014

  • Song, Byeongseop; Rolin, Cedric; Zimmerman, Jeramy D.
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 26, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305099

Low pressure organic vapor phase deposition of small molecular weight organic light emitting device structures
journal, November 1997

  • Baldo, M. A.; Kozlov, V. G.; Burrows, P. E.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 71, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.120281

An inter-laboratory stability study of roll-to-roll coated flexible polymer solar modules
journal, May 2011

  • Gevorgyan, Suren A.; Medford, Andrew J.; Bundgaard, Eva
  • Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 95, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2011.01.010

Controlled growth of a molecular bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cell
journal, December 2004

  • Yang, Fan; Shtein, Max; Forrest, Stephen R.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 4, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat1285

Mass Transport through the Carrier Gas Boundary Layer in Organic Vapor Phase Deposition
journal, April 2014


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Near-Infrared Ternary Tandem Solar Cells
    journal, October 2018