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Title: Ultrafast Relativistic Electron Nanoprobes

Abstract

One of the frontiers in electron scattering is to couple ultrafast temporal resolution with highly localized probes to investigate the role of microstructure on material properties. Here, taking advantage of the unprecedented average brightness of the APEX electron gun providing relativistic electron pulses at high repetition rates, we demonstrate for the first time the generation of ultrafast relativistic electron beams with picometer-scale emittance and their ability to probe nanoscale features on materials with complex microstructures. At the sample plane, the APEX beam is tightly focused by a custom in-vacuum lens system based on permanent magnet quadrupoles, and its evolution around the waist is tracked by a knife-edge technique, allowing accurate reconstruction of the beam shape and local density. We then use the focused beam to characterize a Ti-6 wt% Al polycrystalline sample by correlating the diffraction and imaging modality, showcasing the capability to locate grain boundaries and map adjacent crystallographic domains with sub-micron precision. This work provides a new paradigm for ultrafast electron instrumentation, demonstrating the ability to generate relativistic beams with ultra small transverse phase space volumes enabling novel characterization techniques such as relativistic ultrafast electron nano-diffraction and ultrafast scanning transmission electron microscopy.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [3]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  2. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  3. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Scientific User Facilities Division
OSTI Identifier:
1510770
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Communications Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 2; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2399-3650
Publisher:
Springer Nature
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY

Citation Formats

Ji, Fu -Hao, Durham, Daniel B., Minor, Andrew M., Musumeci, Pietro, Navarro, Jorge G., and Filippetto, Daniele. Ultrafast Relativistic Electron Nanoprobes. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1038/s42005-019-0154-4.
Ji, Fu -Hao, Durham, Daniel B., Minor, Andrew M., Musumeci, Pietro, Navarro, Jorge G., & Filippetto, Daniele. Ultrafast Relativistic Electron Nanoprobes. United States. doi:10.1038/s42005-019-0154-4.
Ji, Fu -Hao, Durham, Daniel B., Minor, Andrew M., Musumeci, Pietro, Navarro, Jorge G., and Filippetto, Daniele. Tue . "Ultrafast Relativistic Electron Nanoprobes". United States. doi:10.1038/s42005-019-0154-4. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1510770.
@article{osti_1510770,
title = {Ultrafast Relativistic Electron Nanoprobes},
author = {Ji, Fu -Hao and Durham, Daniel B. and Minor, Andrew M. and Musumeci, Pietro and Navarro, Jorge G. and Filippetto, Daniele},
abstractNote = {One of the frontiers in electron scattering is to couple ultrafast temporal resolution with highly localized probes to investigate the role of microstructure on material properties. Here, taking advantage of the unprecedented average brightness of the APEX electron gun providing relativistic electron pulses at high repetition rates, we demonstrate for the first time the generation of ultrafast relativistic electron beams with picometer-scale emittance and their ability to probe nanoscale features on materials with complex microstructures. At the sample plane, the APEX beam is tightly focused by a custom in-vacuum lens system based on permanent magnet quadrupoles, and its evolution around the waist is tracked by a knife-edge technique, allowing accurate reconstruction of the beam shape and local density. We then use the focused beam to characterize a Ti-6 wt% Al polycrystalline sample by correlating the diffraction and imaging modality, showcasing the capability to locate grain boundaries and map adjacent crystallographic domains with sub-micron precision. This work provides a new paradigm for ultrafast electron instrumentation, demonstrating the ability to generate relativistic beams with ultra small transverse phase space volumes enabling novel characterization techniques such as relativistic ultrafast electron nano-diffraction and ultrafast scanning transmission electron microscopy.},
doi = {10.1038/s42005-019-0154-4},
journal = {Communications Physics},
number = 1,
volume = 2,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {5}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Experimental setup. a Cartoon of the electron beamline for ultrafast nano-UED experiments. From left to right: a section of the radio-frequency electron gun showing the internal nose-cone shape maximizing the accelerating field along the electron beam trajectory; two apertures (A1 and A2) are then used to select electronsmore » with low transverse momentum, the final focusing lens composed by permanent magnet quadrupoles focused the electrons which are then intercepted by a scintillator screen. Here the position of the lens is such that the waist is produced upstream the sample plane, producing a shadowgraph of the specimen. The green Gaussian waveform represents a qualitative behaviour of the beam temporal evolution. b The same schematic with the setup operating in diffraction mode, with coincident electron beam focus and sample planes c Electron beam dynamics simulations showing the behaviour of the electron beam emittance and pulse lenght throughout the beamline. The two apertures A1 and A2 decrease the electron beam emittance by about 1 order of magnitude each. At the same time, a negative energy-time correlation is imprinted on the electron beam by the radio-frequency buncher, which causes the beam to compress in the subsequent vacuum drift, reaching a minimum value at the sample plane.« less

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