skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: 3D pore analysis of gasoline particulate filters using X-ray tomography: impact of coating and ash loading

Abstract

Since particulate emissions control technologies are dependent on filtration technologies, development of porous materials with optimized pore structures is crucial to improve filtration efficiency and pressure drop across filters. Despite increasing attention to 3D measurements of porous materials, there are few reports of pore structure investigations of diesel/gasoline particulate filters (D/GPFs) using 3D visualization techniques. Here, GPF 3D pore structures were examined using X-ray tomography (XRT) to identify the impacts of catalyst coating or ash loading. Voxel resolution of 2.93 mu m made it impossible to distinguish coating or ash materials from the cordierite substrate or to recognize smaller pores than the voxel resolution. However, pores up to 200 mu m, which are responsible for the most pore volume, were successfully analyzed. Coating and ash loading resulted in lowering average pore diameter, total porosity, and open porosity, as the peak density of pore diameter at 60 mu m decreased, while pores below 20 mu m increased. Also, the visualized closed pores, which were homogeneously distributed throughout the bare filter, tended to get larger from inlet to outlet sides and more likely to be on the surface inlet due to coating and ash loading, indicating gas pathways originally existing in openmore » pores were blocked due to coating and ash loading, leading to increased pressure drop. The ash impact was found to be more noticeable on mid and back positions than on front position. In addition, the investigation of areal porosity along the direction of gas flow suggested that while ash penetration could reach the outlet side as noted from increased closed pore population, most ash particles would be contained up to 150 mu m. Lastly, the 2D crosscut microscopic analysis that requires destructive procedures with the limited examination area could provide underestimation of ash penetration, whereas the 3D XRT analysis seems to provide more accurate information of pore structure changes due to ash loading at different locations.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hyundai Motor Company, Hwaseong-si (Korea)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V); USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1510252
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Materials Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 54; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 0022-2461
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; X-ray tomography; ash; gasoline particulate filter (GPF); pore structure

Citation Formats

Seong, Heeje, Choi, Seungmok, Matusik, Katarzyna E., Kastengren, Alan L., and Powell, Christopher F. 3D pore analysis of gasoline particulate filters using X-ray tomography: impact of coating and ash loading. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1007/s10853-018-03310-w.
Seong, Heeje, Choi, Seungmok, Matusik, Katarzyna E., Kastengren, Alan L., & Powell, Christopher F. 3D pore analysis of gasoline particulate filters using X-ray tomography: impact of coating and ash loading. United States. doi:10.1007/s10853-018-03310-w.
Seong, Heeje, Choi, Seungmok, Matusik, Katarzyna E., Kastengren, Alan L., and Powell, Christopher F. Thu . "3D pore analysis of gasoline particulate filters using X-ray tomography: impact of coating and ash loading". United States. doi:10.1007/s10853-018-03310-w. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1510252.
@article{osti_1510252,
title = {3D pore analysis of gasoline particulate filters using X-ray tomography: impact of coating and ash loading},
author = {Seong, Heeje and Choi, Seungmok and Matusik, Katarzyna E. and Kastengren, Alan L. and Powell, Christopher F.},
abstractNote = {Since particulate emissions control technologies are dependent on filtration technologies, development of porous materials with optimized pore structures is crucial to improve filtration efficiency and pressure drop across filters. Despite increasing attention to 3D measurements of porous materials, there are few reports of pore structure investigations of diesel/gasoline particulate filters (D/GPFs) using 3D visualization techniques. Here, GPF 3D pore structures were examined using X-ray tomography (XRT) to identify the impacts of catalyst coating or ash loading. Voxel resolution of 2.93 mu m made it impossible to distinguish coating or ash materials from the cordierite substrate or to recognize smaller pores than the voxel resolution. However, pores up to 200 mu m, which are responsible for the most pore volume, were successfully analyzed. Coating and ash loading resulted in lowering average pore diameter, total porosity, and open porosity, as the peak density of pore diameter at 60 mu m decreased, while pores below 20 mu m increased. Also, the visualized closed pores, which were homogeneously distributed throughout the bare filter, tended to get larger from inlet to outlet sides and more likely to be on the surface inlet due to coating and ash loading, indicating gas pathways originally existing in open pores were blocked due to coating and ash loading, leading to increased pressure drop. The ash impact was found to be more noticeable on mid and back positions than on front position. In addition, the investigation of areal porosity along the direction of gas flow suggested that while ash penetration could reach the outlet side as noted from increased closed pore population, most ash particles would be contained up to 150 mu m. Lastly, the 2D crosscut microscopic analysis that requires destructive procedures with the limited examination area could provide underestimation of ash penetration, whereas the 3D XRT analysis seems to provide more accurate information of pore structure changes due to ash loading at different locations.},
doi = {10.1007/s10853-018-03310-w},
journal = {Journal of Materials Science},
number = 8,
volume = 54,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {1}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 2 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Lubricant-Derived Ash Properties and Their Effects on Diesel Particulate Filter Pressure-Drop Performance
journal, November 2010

  • Sappok, Alexander; Wong, Victor W.
  • Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, Vol. 133, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1115/1.4001944

Review of the state-of-the-art of exhaust particulate filter technology in internal combustion engines
journal, May 2015


Gasoline Particle Filter Development
journal, February 2017

  • Lambert, Christine; Chanko, Timothy; Dobson, Douglas
  • Emission Control Science and Technology, Vol. 3, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/s40825-016-0055-x

Lubricant-Derived Ash Impact on Gasoline Particulate Filter Performance
journal, April 2016

  • Custer, Nicholas; Kamp, Carl Justin; Sappok, Alexander
  • SAE International Journal of Engines, Vol. 9, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.4271/2016-01-0942

Effect of Lubricant Oil Properties on the Performance of Gasoline Particulate Filter (GPF)
journal, April 2016

  • Shao, Huifang; Lam, William; Remias, Joseph
  • SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants, Vol. 9, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.4271/2016-01-2287

Analysis of High Mileage Gasoline Exhaust Particle Filters
journal, April 2016

  • Lambert, Christine K.; Bumbaroska, Mira; Dobson, Douglas
  • SAE International Journal of Engines, Vol. 9, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.4271/2016-01-0941

Experimental and Modeling Study of Ash Impact on DPF Backpressure and Regeneration Behaviors
journal, January 2015

  • Liu, Yi; Su, Changsheng; Clerc, James
  • SAE International Journal of Engines, Vol. 8, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.4271/2015-01-1063

Single wall diesel particulate filter (DPF) filtration efficiency studies using laboratory generated particles
journal, April 2009


Computer simulation study on filtration of soot particles in diesel particulate filter
journal, April 2008


Dynamic Heterogeneous Multiscale Filtration Model: Probing Micro- and Macroscopic Filtration Characteristics of Gasoline Particulate Filters
journal, September 2017

  • Gong, Jian; Viswanathan, Sandeep; Rothamer, David A.
  • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 51, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.7b02535

Characterization and Analysis of Porosity and Pore Structures
journal, January 2015

  • Anovitz, Lawrence M.; Cole, David R.
  • Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Vol. 80, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.2138/rmg.2015.80.04

Optimization of pore-network characterization of a compacted clay material by TEM and FIB/SEM imaging
journal, April 2016


Extraction of pore-morphology and capillary pressure curves of porous media from synchrotron-based tomography data
journal, June 2015

  • Yang, Feifei; Hingerl, Ferdinand F.; Xiao, Xianghui
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep10635

Effect of Pore Structure on Soot Deposition in Diesel Particulate Filter
journal, December 2016


3D reconstruction and pore-scale modeling of coated catalytic filters for automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment
journal, January 2019


Structure characterisation of catalytic particulate filters for automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment
journal, December 2017


Analyses of microstructural and elastic properties of porous SOFC cathodes based on focused ion beam tomography
journal, January 2015


Quantification and Prediction of the 3D Pore Network Evolution in Carbonate Reservoir Rocks
journal, January 2012

  • De Boever, E.; Varloteaux, C.; Nader, F. H.
  • Oil & Gas Science and Technology – Revue d’IFP Energies nouvelles, Vol. 67, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.2516/ogst/2011170

Multi-scale characterization of porosity in Boom Clay (HADES-level, Mol, Belgium) using a combination of X-ray μ-CT, 2D BIB-SEM and FIB-SEM tomography
journal, May 2015


Pore structure characterization of asymmetric membranes: Non-destructive characterization of porosity and tortuosity
journal, March 2014


Using X-ray computed tomography in pore structure characterization for a Berea sandstone: Resolution effect
journal, November 2012


X-ray micro computed tomography characterization of cellular SiC foams for their applications in chemical engineering
journal, January 2017


The 7BM beamline at the APS: a facility for time-resolved fluid dynamics measurements
journal, May 2012

  • Kastengren, Alan; Powell, Christopher F.; Arms, Dohn
  • Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Vol. 19, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1107/S0909049512016883

High-resolution X-ray tomography of Engine Combustion Network diesel injectors
journal, October 2017

  • Matusik, Katarzyna E.; Duke, Daniel J.; Kastengren, Alan L.
  • International Journal of Engine Research, Vol. 19, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1177/1468087417736985

TomoPy: a framework for the analysis of synchrotron tomographic data
journal, August 2014

  • Gürsoy, Dogˇa; De Carlo, Francesco; Xiao, Xianghui
  • Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Vol. 21, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1107/S1600577514013939

Microscopic Visualization of PM Trapping and Regeneration in Micro-Structural Pores of a DPF Wall
journal, April 2009

  • Karin, Preechar; Cui, Liyan; Rubio, Pedro
  • SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants, Vol. 2, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.4271/2009-01-1476

PDF-Based Heterogeneous Multiscale Filtration Model
journal, April 2015

  • Gong, Jian; Rutland, Christopher J.
  • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 49, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.5b00329

Mercury Porosimetry: A General (Practical) Overview
journal, June 2006


Study of the Deep-Bed Filtration Using Pore Filtration Model (PFM)
journal, February 2018

  • Yang, Yangdongfang; Rutland, Christopher; Rothamer, David
  • SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants, Vol. 11, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.4271/2018-01-0956