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Title: Large-Area Material and Junction Damage in c–Si Solar Cells by Potential-Induced Degradation

Abstract

This paper reports a new potential-induced degradation (PID) mechanism for crystalline silicon (c-Si), where Na diffuses everywhere and causes large-area material and junction degradation with point defects. Multiple characterization techniques are combined - Kelvin probe force microscopy, electron-beam induced current, dark lock-in thermography, transmission electron microscopy, time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry, and microwave photoconductance decay - as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations. These characterization techniques and theoretical calculations are complementary in various aspects of a material's chemical, structural, electrical, and optoelectrical nature, as well as in atomic, nanometer, micrometer, millimeter, and cell and module scales. All results point consistently to a new discovery: substantial large-area deterioration of materials and junctions play a major role in c-Si PID (in addition to the previously reported local shunting defect caused by Na diffusion to planar defects). Furthermore, this new finding reveals a key PID component and leads to a new strategy for tailoring c-Si photovoltaics to ultimately resolve the PID issue.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar Energy Technologies Office (EE-4S)
OSTI Identifier:
1509669
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5K00-72059
Journal ID: ISSN 2367-198X
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Solar RRL
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 3; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 2367-198X
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; fundamental mechanisms; large-area damage; multiple characterization; potential-induced degradation; Si solar cells

Citation Formats

Xiao, Chuanxiao, Jiang, Chun ‐Sheng, Harvey, Steve P., Sulas, Dana, Chen, Xihan, Liu, Jun, Pan, Jie, Moutinho, Helio, Norman, Andrew, Hacke, Peter, Johnston, Steve, and Al‐Jassim, Mowafak. Large-Area Material and Junction Damage in c–Si Solar Cells by Potential-Induced Degradation. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1002/solr.201800303.
Xiao, Chuanxiao, Jiang, Chun ‐Sheng, Harvey, Steve P., Sulas, Dana, Chen, Xihan, Liu, Jun, Pan, Jie, Moutinho, Helio, Norman, Andrew, Hacke, Peter, Johnston, Steve, & Al‐Jassim, Mowafak. Large-Area Material and Junction Damage in c–Si Solar Cells by Potential-Induced Degradation. United States. doi:10.1002/solr.201800303.
Xiao, Chuanxiao, Jiang, Chun ‐Sheng, Harvey, Steve P., Sulas, Dana, Chen, Xihan, Liu, Jun, Pan, Jie, Moutinho, Helio, Norman, Andrew, Hacke, Peter, Johnston, Steve, and Al‐Jassim, Mowafak. Wed . "Large-Area Material and Junction Damage in c–Si Solar Cells by Potential-Induced Degradation". United States. doi:10.1002/solr.201800303.
@article{osti_1509669,
title = {Large-Area Material and Junction Damage in c–Si Solar Cells by Potential-Induced Degradation},
author = {Xiao, Chuanxiao and Jiang, Chun ‐Sheng and Harvey, Steve P. and Sulas, Dana and Chen, Xihan and Liu, Jun and Pan, Jie and Moutinho, Helio and Norman, Andrew and Hacke, Peter and Johnston, Steve and Al‐Jassim, Mowafak},
abstractNote = {This paper reports a new potential-induced degradation (PID) mechanism for crystalline silicon (c-Si), where Na diffuses everywhere and causes large-area material and junction degradation with point defects. Multiple characterization techniques are combined - Kelvin probe force microscopy, electron-beam induced current, dark lock-in thermography, transmission electron microscopy, time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry, and microwave photoconductance decay - as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations. These characterization techniques and theoretical calculations are complementary in various aspects of a material's chemical, structural, electrical, and optoelectrical nature, as well as in atomic, nanometer, micrometer, millimeter, and cell and module scales. All results point consistently to a new discovery: substantial large-area deterioration of materials and junctions play a major role in c-Si PID (in addition to the previously reported local shunting defect caused by Na diffusion to planar defects). Furthermore, this new finding reveals a key PID component and leads to a new strategy for tailoring c-Si photovoltaics to ultimately resolve the PID issue.},
doi = {10.1002/solr.201800303},
journal = {Solar RRL},
number = 4,
volume = 3,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {1}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

From ultrasoft pseudopotentials to the projector augmented-wave method
journal, January 1999


Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple
journal, October 1996

  • Perdew, John P.; Burke, Kieron; Ernzerhof, Matthias
  • Physical Review Letters, Vol. 77, Issue 18, p. 3865-3868
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.77.3865