skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Comparing EGF Methods for Estimating Corner Frequency and Stress Drop from P-wave Spectra

Abstract

Empirical Green's functions (EGF) are widely applied to correct earthquake spectra for attenuation and other path effects in order to estimate corner frequencies and stress drops, but these source parameter estimates often exhibit poor agreement between different studies. We investigate this issue by analyzing a compact cluster of over 3000 aftershocks of the 1992 Landers earthquake. We apply and compare two different analysis and modeling methods: (1) the spectral decomposition and global EGF fitting approach, and (2) a more traditional EGF method of modeling spectral ratios. We find that spectral decomposition yields event terms that are consistent with stacks of spectral ratios for individual events, but source-parameter estimates nonetheless vary between the methods. The main source of differences comes from the modeling approach used to estimate the EGF. The global EGF-fitting approach suffers from parameter tradeoffs among the absolute stress drop, the stress-drop scaling with moment, and the high-frequency falloff rate, but has the advantage that the relative spectral shapes and stress drops among the different events in the cluster are well-resolved even if their absolute levels are not. The spectral-ratio approach solves for a different EGF for each target event without imposing any constraint on the corner frequency, fc,more » of the smaller events, and so can produce biased results for target-event fc. Placing constraints on the small-event fc improves the performance of the spectral-ratio method and allows the two methods to yield very similar results.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [1]
  1. Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)
  2. Boston Univ., MA (United States)
  3. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1508559
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-18-30681
Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9313
Grant/Contract Number:  
89233218CNA000001
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 124; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9313
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; GF estimation; corner frequency; stress drop

Citation Formats

Shearer, Peter M., Abercrombie, Rachel E., Trugman, Daniel T., and Wang, Wei. Comparing EGF Methods for Estimating Corner Frequency and Stress Drop from P-wave Spectra. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1029/2018JB016957.
Shearer, Peter M., Abercrombie, Rachel E., Trugman, Daniel T., & Wang, Wei. Comparing EGF Methods for Estimating Corner Frequency and Stress Drop from P-wave Spectra. United States. doi:10.1029/2018JB016957.
Shearer, Peter M., Abercrombie, Rachel E., Trugman, Daniel T., and Wang, Wei. Tue . "Comparing EGF Methods for Estimating Corner Frequency and Stress Drop from P-wave Spectra". United States. doi:10.1029/2018JB016957. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1508559.
@article{osti_1508559,
title = {Comparing EGF Methods for Estimating Corner Frequency and Stress Drop from P-wave Spectra},
author = {Shearer, Peter M. and Abercrombie, Rachel E. and Trugman, Daniel T. and Wang, Wei},
abstractNote = {Empirical Green's functions (EGF) are widely applied to correct earthquake spectra for attenuation and other path effects in order to estimate corner frequencies and stress drops, but these source parameter estimates often exhibit poor agreement between different studies. We investigate this issue by analyzing a compact cluster of over 3000 aftershocks of the 1992 Landers earthquake. We apply and compare two different analysis and modeling methods: (1) the spectral decomposition and global EGF fitting approach, and (2) a more traditional EGF method of modeling spectral ratios. We find that spectral decomposition yields event terms that are consistent with stacks of spectral ratios for individual events, but source-parameter estimates nonetheless vary between the methods. The main source of differences comes from the modeling approach used to estimate the EGF. The global EGF-fitting approach suffers from parameter tradeoffs among the absolute stress drop, the stress-drop scaling with moment, and the high-frequency falloff rate, but has the advantage that the relative spectral shapes and stress drops among the different events in the cluster are well-resolved even if their absolute levels are not. The spectral-ratio approach solves for a different EGF for each target event without imposing any constraint on the corner frequency, fc, of the smaller events, and so can produce biased results for target-event fc. Placing constraints on the small-event fc improves the performance of the spectral-ratio method and allows the two methods to yield very similar results.},
doi = {10.1029/2018JB016957},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth},
number = 4,
volume = 124,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {4}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 4 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Analysis of earthquake body wave spectra for potency and magnitude values: implications for magnitude scaling relations
journal, September 2016

  • Ross, Zachary E.; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; White, Malcolm C.
  • Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 207, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/gji/ggw327

Earthquake Monitoring in Southern California for Seventy-Seven Years (1932-2008)
journal, March 2010

  • Hutton, K.; Woessner, J.; Hauksson, E.
  • Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 100, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1785/0120090130

Tectonic stress and the spectra of seismic shear waves from earthquakes
journal, September 1970


Waveform Relocated Earthquake Catalog for Southern California (1981 to June 2011)
journal, October 2012

  • Hauksson, E.; Yang, W.; Shearer, P. M.
  • Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 102, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1785/0120120010

High-resolution analysis of seismicity induced at Berlín geothermal field, El Salvador
journal, October 2014


Does apparent stress vary with earthquake size?
journal, September 2001

  • Ide, Satoshi; Beroza, Gregory C.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 28, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1029/2001GL013106

Spatiotemporal Variation of Stress Drop During the 2008 Mogul, Nevada, Earthquake Swarm: Stress Drops of the 2008 Mogul, NV, Swarm
journal, October 2017

  • Ruhl, C. J.; Abercrombie, R. E.; Smith, K. D.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 122, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/2017JB014601

Can observations of earthquake scaling constrain slip weakening?
journal, August 2005


On the relation of earthquake stress drop and ground motion variability: Stress Drop and Ground Motion Variability
journal, July 2017

  • Oth, Adrien; Miyake, Hiroe; Bindi, Dino
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 122, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1002/2017JB014026

Application of an improved spectral decomposition method to examine earthquake source scaling in Southern California: EARTHQUAKE SOURCE SCALING IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
journal, April 2017

  • Trugman, Daniel T.; Shearer, Peter M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 122, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/2017JB013971

Comprehensive analysis of earthquake source spectra in southern California: SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA SOURCE SPECTRA
journal, June 2006

  • Shearer, Peter M.; Prieto, Germán A.; Hauksson, Egill
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 111, Issue B6
  • DOI: 10.1029/2005JB003979

On the characteristics of earthquake stress release variations in Japan
journal, September 2013


Seismic source spectra and estimated stress drop derived from cohesive-zone models of circular subshear rupture
journal, March 2014

  • Kaneko, Y.; Shearer, P. M.
  • Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 197, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/gji/ggu030

Empirical Green's function analysis: Taking the next step
journal, March 1997

  • Hough, S. E.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 102, Issue B3
  • DOI: 10.1029/96JB03488

Small Earthquakes Deviate from the Omega‐Square Model as Revealed by Multiple Spectral Ratio Analysis
journal, May 2016

  • Uchide, Takahiko; Imanishi, Kazutoshi
  • Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 106, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1785/0120150322

Source pulse enhancement by deconvolution of an empirical Green's function
journal, January 1985


Moment, energy, stress drop, and source spectra of western United States earthquakes from regional coda envelopes
journal, May 1996

  • Mayeda, Kevin; Walter, William R.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 101, Issue B5
  • DOI: 10.1029/96JB00112

Variability of earthquake stress drop in a subduction setting, the Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand
journal, October 2016

  • Abercrombie, Rachel E.; Bannister, Stephen; Ristau, John
  • Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 208, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/gji/ggw393

Earthquake source scaling relationships from −1 to 5 M L using seismograms recorded at 2.5-km depth
journal, December 1995

  • Abercrombie, Rachel E.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 100, Issue B12
  • DOI: 10.1029/95JB02397

Earthquake source scaling and self-similarity estimation from stacking P and S spectra : SOURCE SCALING AND SELF-SIMILARITY
journal, August 2004

  • Prieto, Germán A.; Shearer, Peter M.; Vernon, Frank L.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 109, Issue B8
  • DOI: 10.1029/2004JB003084

Body wave spectra from propagating shear cracks.
journal, January 1973


Investigating uncertainties in empirical Green's function analysis of earthquake source parameters: UNCERTAINTIES IN EGF ANALYSIS
journal, June 2015

  • Abercrombie, Rachel E.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 120, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015JB011984

Variability in earthquake stress drop and apparent stress: ENERGETIC AND ENERVATED EARTHQUAKES
journal, March 2011

  • Baltay, Annemarie; Ide, Satoshi; Prieto, German
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 38, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011GL046698

Influence of Lithostatic Stress on Earthquake Stress Drops in North America
journal, February 2017

  • Boyd, Oliver S.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Hartzell, Stephen
  • Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 107, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1785/0120160219

Moment-magnitude relations in theory and practice
journal, July 1984

  • Hanks, Thomas C.; Boore, David M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 89, Issue B7
  • DOI: 10.1029/JB089iB07p06229

Using S/P Amplitude Ratios to Constrain the Focal Mechanisms of Small Earthquakes
journal, December 2003

  • Hardebeck, J. L.
  • Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 93, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1785/0120020236

Spectral models for ground motion prediction in the L'Aquila region (central Italy): evidence for stress-drop dependence on magnitude and depth
journal, December 2015

  • Pacor, F.; Spallarossa, D.; Oth, A.
  • Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 204, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/gji/ggv448

Radiated seismic energy from coda measurements and no scaling in apparent stress with seismic moment
journal, January 2010

  • Baltay, Annemarie; Prieto, German; Beroza, Gregory C.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 115, Issue B8
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009JB006736

Earthquake Directivity, Orientation, and Stress Drop Within the Subducting Plate at the Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand: Directivity of New Zealand Earthquakes
journal, December 2017

  • Abercrombie, Rachel E.; Poli, Piero; Bannister, Stephen
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 122, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1002/2017JB014935

Stress drops of repeating earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault at Parkfield: Stress drops of Repeating Earthquakes
journal, December 2014


On the Relationship between M w and M L for Small Earthquakes
journal, September 2016

  • Munafò, Irene; Malagnini, L.; Chiaraluce, L.
  • Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 106, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1785/0120160130

Estimating Finite Source Properties of Small Earthquake Ruptures
journal, April 2004

  • McGuire, J. J.
  • Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 94, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1785/0120030091

Strong Correlation between Stress Drop and Peak Ground Acceleration for Recent M 1–4 Earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Area
journal, March 2018

  • Trugman, Daniel T.; Shearer, Peter M.
  • Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 108, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1785/0120170245

Stress drop estimates of potentially induced earthquakes in the Guy-Greenbrier sequence: STRESS DROPS OF INDUCED EARTHQUAKES
journal, September 2016

  • Huang, Yihe; Beroza, Gregory C.; Ellsworth, William L.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 121, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016JB013067

Toward reliable automated estimates of earthquake source properties from body wave spectra: AUTOMATED ESTIMATES OF SOURCE PROPERTIES
journal, June 2016

  • Ross, Zachary E.; Ben-Zion, Yehuda
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 121, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016JB013003

The M w 6.3, 2009 L���Aquila earthquake: source, path and site effects from spectral analysis of strong motion data
journal, December 2009


Spectral Analysis of K-NET and KiK-net Data in Japan, Part II: On Attenuation Characteristics, Source Spectra, and Site Response of Borehole and Surface Stations
journal, March 2011

  • Oth, A.; Bindi, D.; Parolai, S.
  • Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 101, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1785/0120100135

The 2002 M5 Au Sable Forks, NY, earthquake sequence: Source scaling relationships and energy budget
journal, January 2010

  • Viegas, Gisela; Abercrombie, Rachel E.; Kim, Won-Young
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 115, Issue B7
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009JB006799

Investigating microearthquake finite source attributes with IRIS Community Wavefield Demonstration Experiment in Oklahoma
journal, May 2018

  • Fan, Wenyuan; McGuire, Jeffrey J.
  • Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 214, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/gji/ggy203

Along-strike rupture directivity of earthquakes of the 2009 L'Aquila, central Italy, seismic sequence
journal, August 2015

  • Calderoni, G.; Rovelli, A.; Ben-Zion, Y.
  • Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 203, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/gji/ggv275

Apparent break in earthquake scaling due to path and site effects on deep borehole recordings: SMALL EARTHQUAKE SCALING IN LONG VALLEY
journal, May 2003

  • Ide, Satoshi; Beroza, Gregory C.; Prejean, Stephanie G.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 108, Issue B5
  • DOI: 10.1029/2001JB001617