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Title: Neutron-Antineutron Oscillations from Lattice QCD

Abstract

Fundamental symmetry tests of baryon number violation in low-energy experiments can probe beyond the standard model (BSM) explanations of the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe. Neutron-antineutron oscillations are predicted to be a signature of many baryogenesis mechanisms involving low-scale baryon number violation. This Letter presents first-principles calculations of neutron-antineutron matrix elements needed to accurately connect measurements of the neutron-antineutron oscillation rate to constraints on |ΔB| = 2 baryon number violation in BSM theories. Several important systematic uncertainties are controlled by using a state-of-the-art lattice gauge field ensemble with physical quark masses and approximate chiral symmetry, performing nonperturbative renormalization with perturbative matching to the modified minimal subtraction scheme, and studying excited state effects in two-state fits. Phenomenological implications are highlighted by comparing expected bounds from proposed neutron-antineutron oscillation experiments to predictions of a specific model of postsphaleron baryogenesis. Quantum chromodynamics is found to predict at least an order of magnitude more events in neutron-antineutron oscillation experiments than previous estimates based on the “MIT bag model” for fixed BSM parameters. Lattice artifacts and other systematic uncertainties that are not controlled in this pioneering calculation are not expected to significantly change this conclusion.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP)
OSTI Identifier:
1508198
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1511574
Report Number(s):
BNL-211593-2019-JAAM
Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007; PRLTAO; 162001
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344; FG02-00ER41132; SC0012704; SC0011090; AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Physical Review Letters Journal Volume: 122 Journal Issue: 16; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007
Publisher:
American Physical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS

Citation Formats

Rinaldi, Enrico, Syritsyn, Sergey, Wagman, Michael L., Buchoff, Michael I., Schroeder, Chris, and Wasem, Joseph. Neutron-Antineutron Oscillations from Lattice QCD. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.162001.
Rinaldi, Enrico, Syritsyn, Sergey, Wagman, Michael L., Buchoff, Michael I., Schroeder, Chris, & Wasem, Joseph. Neutron-Antineutron Oscillations from Lattice QCD. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.162001.
Rinaldi, Enrico, Syritsyn, Sergey, Wagman, Michael L., Buchoff, Michael I., Schroeder, Chris, and Wasem, Joseph. Mon . "Neutron-Antineutron Oscillations from Lattice QCD". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.162001.
@article{osti_1508198,
title = {Neutron-Antineutron Oscillations from Lattice QCD},
author = {Rinaldi, Enrico and Syritsyn, Sergey and Wagman, Michael L. and Buchoff, Michael I. and Schroeder, Chris and Wasem, Joseph},
abstractNote = {Fundamental symmetry tests of baryon number violation in low-energy experiments can probe beyond the standard model (BSM) explanations of the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe. Neutron-antineutron oscillations are predicted to be a signature of many baryogenesis mechanisms involving low-scale baryon number violation. This Letter presents first-principles calculations of neutron-antineutron matrix elements needed to accurately connect measurements of the neutron-antineutron oscillation rate to constraints on |ΔB| = 2 baryon number violation in BSM theories. Several important systematic uncertainties are controlled by using a state-of-the-art lattice gauge field ensemble with physical quark masses and approximate chiral symmetry, performing nonperturbative renormalization with perturbative matching to the modified minimal subtraction scheme, and studying excited state effects in two-state fits. Phenomenological implications are highlighted by comparing expected bounds from proposed neutron-antineutron oscillation experiments to predictions of a specific model of postsphaleron baryogenesis. Quantum chromodynamics is found to predict at least an order of magnitude more events in neutron-antineutron oscillation experiments than previous estimates based on the “MIT bag model” for fixed BSM parameters. Lattice artifacts and other systematic uncertainties that are not controlled in this pioneering calculation are not expected to significantly change this conclusion.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.162001},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
number = 16,
volume = 122,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {4}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.162001

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 2 works
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Figures / Tables:

FIG. 1 FIG. 1: Neutron effective mass $M^{PJ}_{n}$($t$) = ln[$G^{PJ}_{2pt}$($t$)/$G^{PJ}_{2pt}$($t$+a)] determined from point-point and point-smeared ($J$ = $P$, $S$) two-point correlation functions. Lattice data points are shifted for visibility and compared to two-state fits (shaded bands). The asymptotic $t$ result is compatible with the nucleon mass when converted to physical units, indicatingmore » negligible discretization and finite volume effects.« less

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    Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.