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Title: First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. I. The Shadow of the Supermassive Black Hole

Abstract

When surrounded by a transparent emission region, black holes are expected to reveal a dark shadow caused by gravitational light bending and photon capture at the event horizon. To image and study this phenomenon, we have assembled the Event Horizon Telescope, a global very long baseline interferometry array observing at a wavelength of 1.3 mm. This allows us to reconstruct event-horizon-scale images of the supermassive black hole candidate in the center of the giant elliptical galaxy M87. We have resolved the central compact radio source as an asymmetric bright emission ring with a diameter of 42 ± 3 μas, which is circular and encompasses a central depression in brightness with a flux ratio gsim10:1. The emission ring is recovered using different calibration and imaging schemes, with its diameter and width remaining stable over four different observations carried out in different days. Overall, the observed image is consistent with expectations for the shadow of a Kerr black hole as predicted by general relativity. The asymmetry in brightness in the ring can be explained in terms of relativistic beaming of the emission from a plasma rotating close to the speed of light around a black hole. We compare our images to anmore » extensive library of ray-traced general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of black holes and derive a central mass of M = (6.5 ± 0.7) × 10 9 M⊙. Our radio-wave observations thus provide powerful evidence for the presence of supermassive black holes in centers of galaxies and as the central engines of active galactic nuclei. They also present a new tool to explore gravity in its most extreme limit and on a mass scale that was so far not accessible.« less

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
Contributing Org.:
The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1508025
Report Number(s):
FERMILAB-PUB-19-153-AE
Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213; 1729067
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal. Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 875; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

Akiyama, Kazunori, Alberdi, Antxon, Alef, Walter, Asada, Keiichi, Azulay, Rebecca, Baczko, Anne-Kathrin, Ball, David, Baloković, Mislav, Barrett, John, Bintley, Dan, Blackburn, Lindy, Boland, Wilfred, Bouman, Katherine L., Bower, Geoffrey C., Bremer, Michael, Brinkerink, Christiaan D., Brissenden, Roger, Britzen, Silke, Broderick, Avery E., Broguiere, Dominique, Bronzwaer, Thomas, Byun, Do-Young, Carlstrom, John E., Chael, Andrew, Chan, Chi-kwan, Chatterjee, Shami, Chatterjee, Koushik, Chen, Ming-Tang, Chen, Yongjun, Cho, Ilje, Christian, Pierre, Conway, John E., Cordes, James M., Crew, Geoffrey B., Cui, Yuzhu, Davelaar, Jordy, Laurentis, Mariafelicia De, Deane, Roger, Dempsey, Jessica, Desvignes, Gregory, Dexter, Jason, Doeleman, Sheperd S., Eatough, Ralph P., Falcke, Heino, Fish, Vincent L., Fomalont, Ed, Fraga-Encinas, Raquel, Freeman, William T., Friberg, Per, Fromm, Christian M., Gómez, José L., Galison, Peter, Gammie, Charles F., García, Roberto, Gentaz, Olivier, Georgiev, Boris, Goddi, Ciriaco, Gold, Roman, Gu, Minfeng, Gurwell, Mark, Hada, Kazuhiro, Hecht, Michael H., Hesper, Ronald, Ho, Luis C., Ho, Paul, Honma, Mareki, Huang, Chih-Wei L., Huang, Lei, Hughes, David H., Ikeda, Shiro, Inoue, Makoto, Issaoun, Sara, James, David J., Jannuzi, Buell T., Janssen, Michael, Jeter, Britton, Jiang, Wu, Johnson, Michael D., Jorstad, Svetlana, Jung, Taehyun, Karami, Mansour, Karuppusamy, Ramesh, Kawashima, Tomohisa, Keating, Garrett K., Kettenis, Mark, Kim, Jae-Young, Kim, Junhan, Kim, Jongsoo, Kino, Motoki, Koay, Jun Yi, Koch, Patrick M., Koyama, Shoko, Kramer, Michael, Kramer, Carsten, Krichbaum, Thomas P., Kuo, Cheng-Yu, Lauer, Tod R., Lee, Sang-Sung, Li, Yan-Rong, Li, Zhiyuan, Lindqvist, Michael, Liu, Kuo, Liuzzo, Elisabetta, Lo, Wen-Ping, Lobanov, Andrei P., Loinard, Laurent, Lonsdale, Colin, Lu, Ru-Sen, MacDonald, Nicholas R., Mao, Jirong, Markoff, Sera, Marrone, Daniel P., Marscher, Alan P., Martí-Vidal, Iván, Matsushita, Satoki, Matthews, Lynn D., Medeiros, Lia, Menten, Karl M., Mizuno, Yosuke, Mizuno, Izumi, Moran, James M., Moriyama, Kotaro, Moscibrodzka, Monika, Müller, Cornelia, Nagai, Hiroshi, Nagar, Neil M., Nakamura, Masanori, Narayan, Ramesh, Narayanan, Gopal, Natarajan, Iniyan, Neri, Roberto, Ni, Chunchong, Noutsos, Aristeidis, Okino, Hiroki, Olivares, Héctor, Ortiz-León, Gisela N., Oyama, Tomoaki, Özel, Feryal, Palumbo, Daniel C. M., Patel, Nimesh, Pen, Ue-Li, Pesce, Dominic W., Piétu, Vincent, Plambeck, Richard, PopStefanija, Aleksandar, Porth, Oliver, Prather, Ben, Preciado-López, Jorge A., Psaltis, Dimitrios, Pu, Hung-Yi, Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh, Rao, Ramprasad, Rawlings, Mark G., Raymond, Alexander W., Rezzolla, Luciano, Ripperda, Bart, Roelofs, Freek, Rogers, Alan, Ros, Eduardo, Rose, Mel, Roshanineshat, Arash, Rottmann, Helge, Roy, Alan L., Ruszczyk, Chet, Ryan, Benjamin R., Rygl, Kazi L. J., Sánchez, Salvador, Sánchez-Arguelles, David, Sasada, Mahito, Savolainen, Tuomas, Schloerb, F. Peter, Schuster, Karl-Friedrich, Shao, Lijing, Shen, Zhiqiang, Small, Des, Sohn, Bong Won, SooHoo, Jason, Tazaki, Fumie, Tiede, Paul, Tilanus, Remo P. J., Titus, Michael, Toma, Kenji, Torne, Pablo, Trent, Tyler, Trippe, Sascha, Tsuda, Shuichiro, Bemmel, Ilse van, van Langevelde, Huib Jan, van Rossum, Daniel R., Wagner, Jan, Wardle, John, Weintroub, Jonathan, Wex, Norbert, Wharton, Robert, Wielgus, Maciek, Wong, George N., Wu, Qingwen, Young, Ken, Young, André, Younsi, Ziri, Yuan, Feng, Yuan, Ye-Fei, Zensus, J. Anton, Zhao, Guangyao, Zhao, Shan-Shan, Zhu, Ziyan, Algaba, Juan-Carlos, Allardi, Alexander, Amestica, Rodrigo, Anczarski, Jadyn, Bach, Uwe, Baganoff, Frederick K., Beaudoin, Christopher, Benson, Bradford A., Berthold, Ryan, Blanchard, Jay M., Blundell, Ray, Bustamente, Sandra, Cappallo, Roger, Castillo-Domínguez, Edgar, Chang, Chih-Cheng, Chang, Shu-Hao, Chang, Song-Chu, Chen, Chung-Chen, Chilson, Ryan, Chuter, Tim C., Rosado, Rodrigo Córdova, Coulson, Iain M., Crawford, Thomas M., Crowley, Joseph, David, John, Derome, Mark, Dexter, Matthew, Dornbusch, Sven, Dudevoir, Kevin A., Dzib, Sergio A., Eckart, Andreas, Eckert, Chris, Erickson, Neal R., Everett, Wendeline B., Faber, Aaron, Farah, Joseph R., Fath, Vernon, Folkers, Thomas W., Forbes, David C., Freund, Robert, Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I., Gale, David M., Gao, Feng, Geertsema, Gertie, Graham, David A., Greer, Christopher H., Grosslein, Ronald, Gueth, Frédéric, Haggard, Daryl, Halverson, Nils W., Han, Chih-Chiang, Han, Kuo-Chang, Hao, Jinchi, Hasegawa, Yutaka, Henning, Jason W., Hernández-Gómez, Antonio, Herrero-Illana, Rubén, Heyminck, Stefan, Hirota, Akihiko, Hoge, James, Huang, Yau-De, Impellizzeri, C. M. Violette, Jiang, Homin, Kamble, Atish, Keisler, Ryan, Kimura, Kimihiro, Kono, Yusuke, Kubo, Derek, Kuroda, John, Lacasse, Richard, Laing, Robert A., Leitch, Erik M., Li, Chao-Te, Lin, Lupin C. -C., Liu, Ching-Tang, Liu, Kuan-Yu, Lu, Li-Ming, Marson, Ralph G., Martin-Cocher, Pierre L., Massingill, Kyle D., Matulonis, Callie, McColl, Martin P., McWhirter, Stephen R., Messias, Hugo, Meyer-Zhao, Zheng, Michalik, Daniel, Montaña, Alfredo, Montgomerie, William, Mora-Klein, Matias, Muders, Dirk, Nadolski, Andrew, Navarro, Santiago, Neilsen, Joseph, Nguyen, Chi H., Nishioka, Hiroaki, Norton, Timothy, Nowak, Michael A., Nystrom, George, Ogawa, Hideo, Oshiro, Peter, Oyama, Tomoaki, Parsons, Harriet, Paine, Scott N., Peñalver, Juan, Phillips, Neil M., Poirier, Michael, Pradel, Nicolas, Primiani, Rurik A., Raffin, Philippe A., Rahlin, Alexandra S., Reiland, George, Risacher, Christopher, Ruiz, Ignacio, Sáez-Madaín, Alejandro F., Sassella, Remi, Schellart, Pim, Shaw, Paul, Silva, Kevin M., Shiokawa, Hotaka, Smith, David R., Snow, William, Souccar, Kamal, Sousa, Don, Sridharan, T. K., Srinivasan, Ranjani, Stahm, William, Stark, Anthony A., Story, Kyle, Timmer, Sjoerd T., Vertatschitsch, Laura, Walther, Craig, Wei, Ta-Shun, Whitehorn, Nathan, Whitney, Alan R., Woody, David P., Wouterloot, Jan G. A., Wright, Melvin, Yamaguchi, Paul, Yu, Chen-Yu, Zeballos, Milagros, Zhang, Shuo, and Ziurys, Lucy. First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. I. The Shadow of the Supermassive Black Hole. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ab0ec7.
Akiyama, Kazunori, Alberdi, Antxon, Alef, Walter, Asada, Keiichi, Azulay, Rebecca, Baczko, Anne-Kathrin, Ball, David, Baloković, Mislav, Barrett, John, Bintley, Dan, Blackburn, Lindy, Boland, Wilfred, Bouman, Katherine L., Bower, Geoffrey C., Bremer, Michael, Brinkerink, Christiaan D., Brissenden, Roger, Britzen, Silke, Broderick, Avery E., Broguiere, Dominique, Bronzwaer, Thomas, Byun, Do-Young, Carlstrom, John E., Chael, Andrew, Chan, Chi-kwan, Chatterjee, Shami, Chatterjee, Koushik, Chen, Ming-Tang, Chen, Yongjun, Cho, Ilje, Christian, Pierre, Conway, John E., Cordes, James M., Crew, Geoffrey B., Cui, Yuzhu, Davelaar, Jordy, Laurentis, Mariafelicia De, Deane, Roger, Dempsey, Jessica, Desvignes, Gregory, Dexter, Jason, Doeleman, Sheperd S., Eatough, Ralph P., Falcke, Heino, Fish, Vincent L., Fomalont, Ed, Fraga-Encinas, Raquel, Freeman, William T., Friberg, Per, Fromm, Christian M., Gómez, José L., Galison, Peter, Gammie, Charles F., García, Roberto, Gentaz, Olivier, Georgiev, Boris, Goddi, Ciriaco, Gold, Roman, Gu, Minfeng, Gurwell, Mark, Hada, Kazuhiro, Hecht, Michael H., Hesper, Ronald, Ho, Luis C., Ho, Paul, Honma, Mareki, Huang, Chih-Wei L., Huang, Lei, Hughes, David H., Ikeda, Shiro, Inoue, Makoto, Issaoun, Sara, James, David J., Jannuzi, Buell T., Janssen, Michael, Jeter, Britton, Jiang, Wu, Johnson, Michael D., Jorstad, Svetlana, Jung, Taehyun, Karami, Mansour, Karuppusamy, Ramesh, Kawashima, Tomohisa, Keating, Garrett K., Kettenis, Mark, Kim, Jae-Young, Kim, Junhan, Kim, Jongsoo, Kino, Motoki, Koay, Jun Yi, Koch, Patrick M., Koyama, Shoko, Kramer, Michael, Kramer, Carsten, Krichbaum, Thomas P., Kuo, Cheng-Yu, Lauer, Tod R., Lee, Sang-Sung, Li, Yan-Rong, Li, Zhiyuan, Lindqvist, Michael, Liu, Kuo, Liuzzo, Elisabetta, Lo, Wen-Ping, Lobanov, Andrei P., Loinard, Laurent, Lonsdale, Colin, Lu, Ru-Sen, MacDonald, Nicholas R., Mao, Jirong, Markoff, Sera, Marrone, Daniel P., Marscher, Alan P., Martí-Vidal, Iván, Matsushita, Satoki, Matthews, Lynn D., Medeiros, Lia, Menten, Karl M., Mizuno, Yosuke, Mizuno, Izumi, Moran, James M., Moriyama, Kotaro, Moscibrodzka, Monika, Müller, Cornelia, Nagai, Hiroshi, Nagar, Neil M., Nakamura, Masanori, Narayan, Ramesh, Narayanan, Gopal, Natarajan, Iniyan, Neri, Roberto, Ni, Chunchong, Noutsos, Aristeidis, Okino, Hiroki, Olivares, Héctor, Ortiz-León, Gisela N., Oyama, Tomoaki, Özel, Feryal, Palumbo, Daniel C. M., Patel, Nimesh, Pen, Ue-Li, Pesce, Dominic W., Piétu, Vincent, Plambeck, Richard, PopStefanija, Aleksandar, Porth, Oliver, Prather, Ben, Preciado-López, Jorge A., Psaltis, Dimitrios, Pu, Hung-Yi, Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh, Rao, Ramprasad, Rawlings, Mark G., Raymond, Alexander W., Rezzolla, Luciano, Ripperda, Bart, Roelofs, Freek, Rogers, Alan, Ros, Eduardo, Rose, Mel, Roshanineshat, Arash, Rottmann, Helge, Roy, Alan L., Ruszczyk, Chet, Ryan, Benjamin R., Rygl, Kazi L. J., Sánchez, Salvador, Sánchez-Arguelles, David, Sasada, Mahito, Savolainen, Tuomas, Schloerb, F. Peter, Schuster, Karl-Friedrich, Shao, Lijing, Shen, Zhiqiang, Small, Des, Sohn, Bong Won, SooHoo, Jason, Tazaki, Fumie, Tiede, Paul, Tilanus, Remo P. J., Titus, Michael, Toma, Kenji, Torne, Pablo, Trent, Tyler, Trippe, Sascha, Tsuda, Shuichiro, Bemmel, Ilse van, van Langevelde, Huib Jan, van Rossum, Daniel R., Wagner, Jan, Wardle, John, Weintroub, Jonathan, Wex, Norbert, Wharton, Robert, Wielgus, Maciek, Wong, George N., Wu, Qingwen, Young, Ken, Young, André, Younsi, Ziri, Yuan, Feng, Yuan, Ye-Fei, Zensus, J. Anton, Zhao, Guangyao, Zhao, Shan-Shan, Zhu, Ziyan, Algaba, Juan-Carlos, Allardi, Alexander, Amestica, Rodrigo, Anczarski, Jadyn, Bach, Uwe, Baganoff, Frederick K., Beaudoin, Christopher, Benson, Bradford A., Berthold, Ryan, Blanchard, Jay M., Blundell, Ray, Bustamente, Sandra, Cappallo, Roger, Castillo-Domínguez, Edgar, Chang, Chih-Cheng, Chang, Shu-Hao, Chang, Song-Chu, Chen, Chung-Chen, Chilson, Ryan, Chuter, Tim C., Rosado, Rodrigo Córdova, Coulson, Iain M., Crawford, Thomas M., Crowley, Joseph, David, John, Derome, Mark, Dexter, Matthew, Dornbusch, Sven, Dudevoir, Kevin A., Dzib, Sergio A., Eckart, Andreas, Eckert, Chris, Erickson, Neal R., Everett, Wendeline B., Faber, Aaron, Farah, Joseph R., Fath, Vernon, Folkers, Thomas W., Forbes, David C., Freund, Robert, Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I., Gale, David M., Gao, Feng, Geertsema, Gertie, Graham, David A., Greer, Christopher H., Grosslein, Ronald, Gueth, Frédéric, Haggard, Daryl, Halverson, Nils W., Han, Chih-Chiang, Han, Kuo-Chang, Hao, Jinchi, Hasegawa, Yutaka, Henning, Jason W., Hernández-Gómez, Antonio, Herrero-Illana, Rubén, Heyminck, Stefan, Hirota, Akihiko, Hoge, James, Huang, Yau-De, Impellizzeri, C. M. Violette, Jiang, Homin, Kamble, Atish, Keisler, Ryan, Kimura, Kimihiro, Kono, Yusuke, Kubo, Derek, Kuroda, John, Lacasse, Richard, Laing, Robert A., Leitch, Erik M., Li, Chao-Te, Lin, Lupin C. -C., Liu, Ching-Tang, Liu, Kuan-Yu, Lu, Li-Ming, Marson, Ralph G., Martin-Cocher, Pierre L., Massingill, Kyle D., Matulonis, Callie, McColl, Martin P., McWhirter, Stephen R., Messias, Hugo, Meyer-Zhao, Zheng, Michalik, Daniel, Montaña, Alfredo, Montgomerie, William, Mora-Klein, Matias, Muders, Dirk, Nadolski, Andrew, Navarro, Santiago, Neilsen, Joseph, Nguyen, Chi H., Nishioka, Hiroaki, Norton, Timothy, Nowak, Michael A., Nystrom, George, Ogawa, Hideo, Oshiro, Peter, Oyama, Tomoaki, Parsons, Harriet, Paine, Scott N., Peñalver, Juan, Phillips, Neil M., Poirier, Michael, Pradel, Nicolas, Primiani, Rurik A., Raffin, Philippe A., Rahlin, Alexandra S., Reiland, George, Risacher, Christopher, Ruiz, Ignacio, Sáez-Madaín, Alejandro F., Sassella, Remi, Schellart, Pim, Shaw, Paul, Silva, Kevin M., Shiokawa, Hotaka, Smith, David R., Snow, William, Souccar, Kamal, Sousa, Don, Sridharan, T. K., Srinivasan, Ranjani, Stahm, William, Stark, Anthony A., Story, Kyle, Timmer, Sjoerd T., Vertatschitsch, Laura, Walther, Craig, Wei, Ta-Shun, Whitehorn, Nathan, Whitney, Alan R., Woody, David P., Wouterloot, Jan G. A., Wright, Melvin, Yamaguchi, Paul, Yu, Chen-Yu, Zeballos, Milagros, Zhang, Shuo, & Ziurys, Lucy. First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. I. The Shadow of the Supermassive Black Hole. United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ab0ec7.
Akiyama, Kazunori, Alberdi, Antxon, Alef, Walter, Asada, Keiichi, Azulay, Rebecca, Baczko, Anne-Kathrin, Ball, David, Baloković, Mislav, Barrett, John, Bintley, Dan, Blackburn, Lindy, Boland, Wilfred, Bouman, Katherine L., Bower, Geoffrey C., Bremer, Michael, Brinkerink, Christiaan D., Brissenden, Roger, Britzen, Silke, Broderick, Avery E., Broguiere, Dominique, Bronzwaer, Thomas, Byun, Do-Young, Carlstrom, John E., Chael, Andrew, Chan, Chi-kwan, Chatterjee, Shami, Chatterjee, Koushik, Chen, Ming-Tang, Chen, Yongjun, Cho, Ilje, Christian, Pierre, Conway, John E., Cordes, James M., Crew, Geoffrey B., Cui, Yuzhu, Davelaar, Jordy, Laurentis, Mariafelicia De, Deane, Roger, Dempsey, Jessica, Desvignes, Gregory, Dexter, Jason, Doeleman, Sheperd S., Eatough, Ralph P., Falcke, Heino, Fish, Vincent L., Fomalont, Ed, Fraga-Encinas, Raquel, Freeman, William T., Friberg, Per, Fromm, Christian M., Gómez, José L., Galison, Peter, Gammie, Charles F., García, Roberto, Gentaz, Olivier, Georgiev, Boris, Goddi, Ciriaco, Gold, Roman, Gu, Minfeng, Gurwell, Mark, Hada, Kazuhiro, Hecht, Michael H., Hesper, Ronald, Ho, Luis C., Ho, Paul, Honma, Mareki, Huang, Chih-Wei L., Huang, Lei, Hughes, David H., Ikeda, Shiro, Inoue, Makoto, Issaoun, Sara, James, David J., Jannuzi, Buell T., Janssen, Michael, Jeter, Britton, Jiang, Wu, Johnson, Michael D., Jorstad, Svetlana, Jung, Taehyun, Karami, Mansour, Karuppusamy, Ramesh, Kawashima, Tomohisa, Keating, Garrett K., Kettenis, Mark, Kim, Jae-Young, Kim, Junhan, Kim, Jongsoo, Kino, Motoki, Koay, Jun Yi, Koch, Patrick M., Koyama, Shoko, Kramer, Michael, Kramer, Carsten, Krichbaum, Thomas P., Kuo, Cheng-Yu, Lauer, Tod R., Lee, Sang-Sung, Li, Yan-Rong, Li, Zhiyuan, Lindqvist, Michael, Liu, Kuo, Liuzzo, Elisabetta, Lo, Wen-Ping, Lobanov, Andrei P., Loinard, Laurent, Lonsdale, Colin, Lu, Ru-Sen, MacDonald, Nicholas R., Mao, Jirong, Markoff, Sera, Marrone, Daniel P., Marscher, Alan P., Martí-Vidal, Iván, Matsushita, Satoki, Matthews, Lynn D., Medeiros, Lia, Menten, Karl M., Mizuno, Yosuke, Mizuno, Izumi, Moran, James M., Moriyama, Kotaro, Moscibrodzka, Monika, Müller, Cornelia, Nagai, Hiroshi, Nagar, Neil M., Nakamura, Masanori, Narayan, Ramesh, Narayanan, Gopal, Natarajan, Iniyan, Neri, Roberto, Ni, Chunchong, Noutsos, Aristeidis, Okino, Hiroki, Olivares, Héctor, Ortiz-León, Gisela N., Oyama, Tomoaki, Özel, Feryal, Palumbo, Daniel C. M., Patel, Nimesh, Pen, Ue-Li, Pesce, Dominic W., Piétu, Vincent, Plambeck, Richard, PopStefanija, Aleksandar, Porth, Oliver, Prather, Ben, Preciado-López, Jorge A., Psaltis, Dimitrios, Pu, Hung-Yi, Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh, Rao, Ramprasad, Rawlings, Mark G., Raymond, Alexander W., Rezzolla, Luciano, Ripperda, Bart, Roelofs, Freek, Rogers, Alan, Ros, Eduardo, Rose, Mel, Roshanineshat, Arash, Rottmann, Helge, Roy, Alan L., Ruszczyk, Chet, Ryan, Benjamin R., Rygl, Kazi L. J., Sánchez, Salvador, Sánchez-Arguelles, David, Sasada, Mahito, Savolainen, Tuomas, Schloerb, F. Peter, Schuster, Karl-Friedrich, Shao, Lijing, Shen, Zhiqiang, Small, Des, Sohn, Bong Won, SooHoo, Jason, Tazaki, Fumie, Tiede, Paul, Tilanus, Remo P. J., Titus, Michael, Toma, Kenji, Torne, Pablo, Trent, Tyler, Trippe, Sascha, Tsuda, Shuichiro, Bemmel, Ilse van, van Langevelde, Huib Jan, van Rossum, Daniel R., Wagner, Jan, Wardle, John, Weintroub, Jonathan, Wex, Norbert, Wharton, Robert, Wielgus, Maciek, Wong, George N., Wu, Qingwen, Young, Ken, Young, André, Younsi, Ziri, Yuan, Feng, Yuan, Ye-Fei, Zensus, J. Anton, Zhao, Guangyao, Zhao, Shan-Shan, Zhu, Ziyan, Algaba, Juan-Carlos, Allardi, Alexander, Amestica, Rodrigo, Anczarski, Jadyn, Bach, Uwe, Baganoff, Frederick K., Beaudoin, Christopher, Benson, Bradford A., Berthold, Ryan, Blanchard, Jay M., Blundell, Ray, Bustamente, Sandra, Cappallo, Roger, Castillo-Domínguez, Edgar, Chang, Chih-Cheng, Chang, Shu-Hao, Chang, Song-Chu, Chen, Chung-Chen, Chilson, Ryan, Chuter, Tim C., Rosado, Rodrigo Córdova, Coulson, Iain M., Crawford, Thomas M., Crowley, Joseph, David, John, Derome, Mark, Dexter, Matthew, Dornbusch, Sven, Dudevoir, Kevin A., Dzib, Sergio A., Eckart, Andreas, Eckert, Chris, Erickson, Neal R., Everett, Wendeline B., Faber, Aaron, Farah, Joseph R., Fath, Vernon, Folkers, Thomas W., Forbes, David C., Freund, Robert, Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I., Gale, David M., Gao, Feng, Geertsema, Gertie, Graham, David A., Greer, Christopher H., Grosslein, Ronald, Gueth, Frédéric, Haggard, Daryl, Halverson, Nils W., Han, Chih-Chiang, Han, Kuo-Chang, Hao, Jinchi, Hasegawa, Yutaka, Henning, Jason W., Hernández-Gómez, Antonio, Herrero-Illana, Rubén, Heyminck, Stefan, Hirota, Akihiko, Hoge, James, Huang, Yau-De, Impellizzeri, C. M. Violette, Jiang, Homin, Kamble, Atish, Keisler, Ryan, Kimura, Kimihiro, Kono, Yusuke, Kubo, Derek, Kuroda, John, Lacasse, Richard, Laing, Robert A., Leitch, Erik M., Li, Chao-Te, Lin, Lupin C. -C., Liu, Ching-Tang, Liu, Kuan-Yu, Lu, Li-Ming, Marson, Ralph G., Martin-Cocher, Pierre L., Massingill, Kyle D., Matulonis, Callie, McColl, Martin P., McWhirter, Stephen R., Messias, Hugo, Meyer-Zhao, Zheng, Michalik, Daniel, Montaña, Alfredo, Montgomerie, William, Mora-Klein, Matias, Muders, Dirk, Nadolski, Andrew, Navarro, Santiago, Neilsen, Joseph, Nguyen, Chi H., Nishioka, Hiroaki, Norton, Timothy, Nowak, Michael A., Nystrom, George, Ogawa, Hideo, Oshiro, Peter, Oyama, Tomoaki, Parsons, Harriet, Paine, Scott N., Peñalver, Juan, Phillips, Neil M., Poirier, Michael, Pradel, Nicolas, Primiani, Rurik A., Raffin, Philippe A., Rahlin, Alexandra S., Reiland, George, Risacher, Christopher, Ruiz, Ignacio, Sáez-Madaín, Alejandro F., Sassella, Remi, Schellart, Pim, Shaw, Paul, Silva, Kevin M., Shiokawa, Hotaka, Smith, David R., Snow, William, Souccar, Kamal, Sousa, Don, Sridharan, T. K., Srinivasan, Ranjani, Stahm, William, Stark, Anthony A., Story, Kyle, Timmer, Sjoerd T., Vertatschitsch, Laura, Walther, Craig, Wei, Ta-Shun, Whitehorn, Nathan, Whitney, Alan R., Woody, David P., Wouterloot, Jan G. A., Wright, Melvin, Yamaguchi, Paul, Yu, Chen-Yu, Zeballos, Milagros, Zhang, Shuo, and Ziurys, Lucy. Wed . "First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. I. The Shadow of the Supermassive Black Hole". United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ab0ec7. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1508025.
@article{osti_1508025,
title = {First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. I. The Shadow of the Supermassive Black Hole},
author = {Akiyama, Kazunori and Alberdi, Antxon and Alef, Walter and Asada, Keiichi and Azulay, Rebecca and Baczko, Anne-Kathrin and Ball, David and Baloković, Mislav and Barrett, John and Bintley, Dan and Blackburn, Lindy and Boland, Wilfred and Bouman, Katherine L. and Bower, Geoffrey C. and Bremer, Michael and Brinkerink, Christiaan D. and Brissenden, Roger and Britzen, Silke and Broderick, Avery E. and Broguiere, Dominique and Bronzwaer, Thomas and Byun, Do-Young and Carlstrom, John E. and Chael, Andrew and Chan, Chi-kwan and Chatterjee, Shami and Chatterjee, Koushik and Chen, Ming-Tang and Chen, Yongjun and Cho, Ilje and Christian, Pierre and Conway, John E. and Cordes, James M. and Crew, Geoffrey B. and Cui, Yuzhu and Davelaar, Jordy and Laurentis, Mariafelicia De and Deane, Roger and Dempsey, Jessica and Desvignes, Gregory and Dexter, Jason and Doeleman, Sheperd S. and Eatough, Ralph P. and Falcke, Heino and Fish, Vincent L. and Fomalont, Ed and Fraga-Encinas, Raquel and Freeman, William T. and Friberg, Per and Fromm, Christian M. and Gómez, José L. and Galison, Peter and Gammie, Charles F. and García, Roberto and Gentaz, Olivier and Georgiev, Boris and Goddi, Ciriaco and Gold, Roman and Gu, Minfeng and Gurwell, Mark and Hada, Kazuhiro and Hecht, Michael H. and Hesper, Ronald and Ho, Luis C. and Ho, Paul and Honma, Mareki and Huang, Chih-Wei L. and Huang, Lei and Hughes, David H. and Ikeda, Shiro and Inoue, Makoto and Issaoun, Sara and James, David J. and Jannuzi, Buell T. and Janssen, Michael and Jeter, Britton and Jiang, Wu and Johnson, Michael D. and Jorstad, Svetlana and Jung, Taehyun and Karami, Mansour and Karuppusamy, Ramesh and Kawashima, Tomohisa and Keating, Garrett K. and Kettenis, Mark and Kim, Jae-Young and Kim, Junhan and Kim, Jongsoo and Kino, Motoki and Koay, Jun Yi and Koch, Patrick M. and Koyama, Shoko and Kramer, Michael and Kramer, Carsten and Krichbaum, Thomas P. and Kuo, Cheng-Yu and Lauer, Tod R. and Lee, Sang-Sung and Li, Yan-Rong and Li, Zhiyuan and Lindqvist, Michael and Liu, Kuo and Liuzzo, Elisabetta and Lo, Wen-Ping and Lobanov, Andrei P. and Loinard, Laurent and Lonsdale, Colin and Lu, Ru-Sen and MacDonald, Nicholas R. and Mao, Jirong and Markoff, Sera and Marrone, Daniel P. and Marscher, Alan P. and Martí-Vidal, Iván and Matsushita, Satoki and Matthews, Lynn D. and Medeiros, Lia and Menten, Karl M. and Mizuno, Yosuke and Mizuno, Izumi and Moran, James M. and Moriyama, Kotaro and Moscibrodzka, Monika and Müller, Cornelia and Nagai, Hiroshi and Nagar, Neil M. and Nakamura, Masanori and Narayan, Ramesh and Narayanan, Gopal and Natarajan, Iniyan and Neri, Roberto and Ni, Chunchong and Noutsos, Aristeidis and Okino, Hiroki and Olivares, Héctor and Ortiz-León, Gisela N. and Oyama, Tomoaki and Özel, Feryal and Palumbo, Daniel C. M. and Patel, Nimesh and Pen, Ue-Li and Pesce, Dominic W. and Piétu, Vincent and Plambeck, Richard and PopStefanija, Aleksandar and Porth, Oliver and Prather, Ben and Preciado-López, Jorge A. and Psaltis, Dimitrios and Pu, Hung-Yi and Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh and Rao, Ramprasad and Rawlings, Mark G. and Raymond, Alexander W. and Rezzolla, Luciano and Ripperda, Bart and Roelofs, Freek and Rogers, Alan and Ros, Eduardo and Rose, Mel and Roshanineshat, Arash and Rottmann, Helge and Roy, Alan L. and Ruszczyk, Chet and Ryan, Benjamin R. and Rygl, Kazi L. J. and Sánchez, Salvador and Sánchez-Arguelles, David and Sasada, Mahito and Savolainen, Tuomas and Schloerb, F. Peter and Schuster, Karl-Friedrich and Shao, Lijing and Shen, Zhiqiang and Small, Des and Sohn, Bong Won and SooHoo, Jason and Tazaki, Fumie and Tiede, Paul and Tilanus, Remo P. J. and Titus, Michael and Toma, Kenji and Torne, Pablo and Trent, Tyler and Trippe, Sascha and Tsuda, Shuichiro and Bemmel, Ilse van and van Langevelde, Huib Jan and van Rossum, Daniel R. and Wagner, Jan and Wardle, John and Weintroub, Jonathan and Wex, Norbert and Wharton, Robert and Wielgus, Maciek and Wong, George N. and Wu, Qingwen and Young, Ken and Young, André and Younsi, Ziri and Yuan, Feng and Yuan, Ye-Fei and Zensus, J. Anton and Zhao, Guangyao and Zhao, Shan-Shan and Zhu, Ziyan and Algaba, Juan-Carlos and Allardi, Alexander and Amestica, Rodrigo and Anczarski, Jadyn and Bach, Uwe and Baganoff, Frederick K. and Beaudoin, Christopher and Benson, Bradford A. and Berthold, Ryan and Blanchard, Jay M. and Blundell, Ray and Bustamente, Sandra and Cappallo, Roger and Castillo-Domínguez, Edgar and Chang, Chih-Cheng and Chang, Shu-Hao and Chang, Song-Chu and Chen, Chung-Chen and Chilson, Ryan and Chuter, Tim C. and Rosado, Rodrigo Córdova and Coulson, Iain M. and Crawford, Thomas M. and Crowley, Joseph and David, John and Derome, Mark and Dexter, Matthew and Dornbusch, Sven and Dudevoir, Kevin A. and Dzib, Sergio A. and Eckart, Andreas and Eckert, Chris and Erickson, Neal R. and Everett, Wendeline B. and Faber, Aaron and Farah, Joseph R. and Fath, Vernon and Folkers, Thomas W. and Forbes, David C. and Freund, Robert and Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I. and Gale, David M. and Gao, Feng and Geertsema, Gertie and Graham, David A. and Greer, Christopher H. and Grosslein, Ronald and Gueth, Frédéric and Haggard, Daryl and Halverson, Nils W. and Han, Chih-Chiang and Han, Kuo-Chang and Hao, Jinchi and Hasegawa, Yutaka and Henning, Jason W. and Hernández-Gómez, Antonio and Herrero-Illana, Rubén and Heyminck, Stefan and Hirota, Akihiko and Hoge, James and Huang, Yau-De and Impellizzeri, C. M. Violette and Jiang, Homin and Kamble, Atish and Keisler, Ryan and Kimura, Kimihiro and Kono, Yusuke and Kubo, Derek and Kuroda, John and Lacasse, Richard and Laing, Robert A. and Leitch, Erik M. and Li, Chao-Te and Lin, Lupin C. -C. and Liu, Ching-Tang and Liu, Kuan-Yu and Lu, Li-Ming and Marson, Ralph G. and Martin-Cocher, Pierre L. and Massingill, Kyle D. and Matulonis, Callie and McColl, Martin P. and McWhirter, Stephen R. and Messias, Hugo and Meyer-Zhao, Zheng and Michalik, Daniel and Montaña, Alfredo and Montgomerie, William and Mora-Klein, Matias and Muders, Dirk and Nadolski, Andrew and Navarro, Santiago and Neilsen, Joseph and Nguyen, Chi H. and Nishioka, Hiroaki and Norton, Timothy and Nowak, Michael A. and Nystrom, George and Ogawa, Hideo and Oshiro, Peter and Oyama, Tomoaki and Parsons, Harriet and Paine, Scott N. and Peñalver, Juan and Phillips, Neil M. and Poirier, Michael and Pradel, Nicolas and Primiani, Rurik A. and Raffin, Philippe A. and Rahlin, Alexandra S. and Reiland, George and Risacher, Christopher and Ruiz, Ignacio and Sáez-Madaín, Alejandro F. and Sassella, Remi and Schellart, Pim and Shaw, Paul and Silva, Kevin M. and Shiokawa, Hotaka and Smith, David R. and Snow, William and Souccar, Kamal and Sousa, Don and Sridharan, T. K. and Srinivasan, Ranjani and Stahm, William and Stark, Anthony A. and Story, Kyle and Timmer, Sjoerd T. and Vertatschitsch, Laura and Walther, Craig and Wei, Ta-Shun and Whitehorn, Nathan and Whitney, Alan R. and Woody, David P. and Wouterloot, Jan G. A. and Wright, Melvin and Yamaguchi, Paul and Yu, Chen-Yu and Zeballos, Milagros and Zhang, Shuo and Ziurys, Lucy},
abstractNote = {When surrounded by a transparent emission region, black holes are expected to reveal a dark shadow caused by gravitational light bending and photon capture at the event horizon. To image and study this phenomenon, we have assembled the Event Horizon Telescope, a global very long baseline interferometry array observing at a wavelength of 1.3 mm. This allows us to reconstruct event-horizon-scale images of the supermassive black hole candidate in the center of the giant elliptical galaxy M87. We have resolved the central compact radio source as an asymmetric bright emission ring with a diameter of 42 ± 3 μas, which is circular and encompasses a central depression in brightness with a flux ratio gsim10:1. The emission ring is recovered using different calibration and imaging schemes, with its diameter and width remaining stable over four different observations carried out in different days. Overall, the observed image is consistent with expectations for the shadow of a Kerr black hole as predicted by general relativity. The asymmetry in brightness in the ring can be explained in terms of relativistic beaming of the emission from a plasma rotating close to the speed of light around a black hole. We compare our images to an extensive library of ray-traced general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of black holes and derive a central mass of M = (6.5 ± 0.7) × 109 M⊙. Our radio-wave observations thus provide powerful evidence for the presence of supermassive black holes in centers of galaxies and as the central engines of active galactic nuclei. They also present a new tool to explore gravity in its most extreme limit and on a mass scale that was so far not accessible.},
doi = {10.3847/2041-8213/ab0ec7},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal. Letters},
number = 1,
volume = 875,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {4}
}

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