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Title: First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. II. Array and Instrumentation

Abstract

The Event Horizon Telescope(EHT)is a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) array that comprises millimeter- and submillimeter-wavelength telescopes separated by distances comparable to the diameter of the Earth. At a nominal operating wavelength of ~1.3 mm, EHT angular resolution(λ/D)is ~25μas, which is sufficient to resolve nearby supermassive black hole candidates on spatial and temporal scales that correspond to their event horizons. With this capability, the EHT scientific goals are to probe general relativistic effects in the strong-field regime and to study accretion and relativistic jet formation near the black hole boundary. In this Letterwe describe the system design of the EHT, detail the technology and instrumentation that enable observations, and provide measures of its performance. Meeting the EHT science objectives has required several key developments that have facilitated the robust extension of the VLBI technique to EHT observing wavelengths and the production of instrumentation that can be deployed on a heterogeneous array of existing telescopes and facilities. To meet sensitivity requirements, high-bandwidth digital systems were developed that process data at rates of 64 gigabit s -1, exceeding those of currently operating cm-wavelength VLBI arrays by more than an order of magnitude. Associated improvements include the development of phasing systems at arraymore » facilities, new receiver installation at several sites, and the deployment of hydrogen maser frequency standards to ensure coherent data capture across the array. These efforts led to the coordination and execution of the first Global EHT observations in2017 April, and to event-horizon-scale imaging of the supermassive black hole candidate in M87.« less

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
Contributing Org.:
The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1508024
Report Number(s):
FERMILAB-PUB-19-154-AE
Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213; 1729068
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal. Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 875; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

Akiyama, Kazunori, Alberdi, Antxon, Alef, Walter, Asada, Keiichi, Azulay, Rebecca, Baczko, Anne-Kathrin, Ball, David, Baloković, Mislav, Barrett, John, Bintley, Dan, Blackburn, Lindy, Boland, Wilfred, Bouman, Katherine L., Bower, Geoffrey C., Bremer, Michael, Brinkerink, Christiaan D., Brissenden, Roger, Britzen, Silke, Broderick, Avery E., Broguiere, Dominique, Bronzwaer, Thomas, Byun, Do-Young, Carlstrom, John E., Chael, Andrew, Chan, Chi-kwan, Chatterjee, Shami, Chatterjee, Koushik, Chen, Ming-Tang, Chen, Yongjun, Cho, Ilje, Christian, Pierre, Conway, John E., Cordes, James M., Crew, Geoffrey B., Cui, Yuzhu, Davelaar, Jordy, De Laurentis, Mariafelicia, Deane, Roger, Dempsey, Jessica, Desvignes, Gregory, Dexter, Jason, Doeleman, Sheperd S., Eatough, Ralph P., Falcke, Heino, Fish, Vincent L., Fomalont, Ed, Fraga-Encinas, Raquel, Friberg, Per, Fromm, Christian M., Gómez, José L., Galison, Peter, Gammie, Charles F., García, Roberto, Gentaz, Olivier, Georgiev, Boris, Goddi, Ciriaco, Gold, Roman, Gu, Minfeng, Gurwell, Mark, Hada, Kazuhiro, Hecht, Michael H., Hesper, Ronald, Ho, Luis C., Ho, Paul, Honma, Mareki, Huang, Chih-Wei L., Huang, Lei, Hughes, David H., Ikeda, Shiro, Inoue, Makoto, Issaoun, Sara, James, David J., Jannuzi, Buell T., Janssen, Michael, Jeter, Britton, Jiang, Wu, Johnson, Michael D., Jorstad, Svetlana, Jung, Taehyun, Karami, Mansour, Karuppusamy, Ramesh, Kawashima, Tomohisa, Keating, Garrett K., Kettenis, Mark, Kim, Jae-Young, Kim, Junhan, Kim, Jongsoo, Kino, Motoki, Koay, Jun Yi, Koch, Patrick M., Koyama, Shoko, Kramer, Michael, Kramer, Carsten, Krichbaum, Thomas P., Kuo, Cheng-Yu, Lauer, Tod R., Lee, Sang-Sung, Li, Yan-Rong, Li, Zhiyuan, Lindqvist, Michael, Liu, Kuo, Liuzzo, Elisabetta, Lo, Wen-Ping, Lobanov, Andrei P., Loinard, Laurent, Lonsdale, Colin, Lu, Ru-Sen, MacDonald, Nicholas R., Mao, Jirong, Markoff, Sera, Marrone, Daniel P., Marscher, Alan P., Martí-Vidal, Iván, Matsushita, Satoki, Matthews, Lynn D., Medeiros, Lia, Menten, Karl M., Mizuno, Yosuke, Mizuno, Izumi, Moran, James M., Moriyama, Kotaro, Moscibrodzka, Monika, Müller, Cornelia, Nagai, Hiroshi, Nagar, Neil M., Nakamura, Masanori, Narayan, Ramesh, Narayanan, Gopal, Natarajan, Iniyan, Neri, Roberto, Ni, Chunchong, Noutsos, Aristeidis, Okino, Hiroki, Olivares, Héctor, Ortiz-León, Gisela N., Oyama, Tomoaki, Özel, Feryal, Palumbo, Daniel C. M., Patel, Nimesh, Pen, Ue-Li, Pesce, Dominic W., Piétu, Vincent, Plambeck, Richard, PopStefanija, Aleksandar, Porth, Oliver, Prather, Ben, Preciado-López, Jorge A., Psaltis, Dimitrios, Pu, Hung-Yi, Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh, Rao, Ramprasad, Rawlings, Mark G., Raymond, Alexander W., Rezzolla, Luciano, Ripperda, Bart, Roelofs, Freek, Rogers, Alan, Ros, Eduardo, Rose, Mel, Roshanineshat, Arash, Rottmann, Helge, Roy, Alan L., Ruszczyk, Chet, Ryan, Benjamin R., Rygl, Kazi L. J., Sánchez, Salvador, Sánchez-Arguelles, David, Sasada, Mahito, Savolainen, Tuomas, Schloerb, F. Peter, Schuster, Karl-Friedrich, Shao, Lijing, Shen, Zhiqiang, Small, Des, Sohn, Bong Won, SooHoo, Jason, Tazaki, Fumie, Tiede, Paul, Tilanus, Remo P. J., Titus, Michael, Toma, Kenji, Torne, Pablo, Trent, Tyler, Trippe, Sascha, Tsuda, Shuichiro, van Bemmel, Ilse, van Langevelde, Huib Jan, van Rossum, Daniel R., Wagner, Jan, Wardle, John, Weintroub, Jonathan, Wex, Norbert, Wharton, Robert, Wielgus, Maciek, Wong, George N., Wu, Qingwen, Young, André, Young, Ken, Younsi, Ziri, Yuan, Feng, Yuan, Ye-Fei, Zensus, J. Anton, Zhao, Guangyao, Zhao, Shan-Shan, Zhu, Ziyan, Algaba, Juan-Carlos, Allardi, Alexander, Amestica, Rodrigo, Bach, Uwe, Beaudoin, Christopher, Benson, Bradford A., Berthold, Ryan, Blanchard, Jay M., Blundell, Ray, Bustamente, Sandra, Cappallo, Roger, Castillo-Domínguez, Edgar, Chang, Chih-Cheng, Chang, Shu-Hao, Chang, Song-Chu, Chen, Chung-Chen, Chilson, Ryan, Chuter, Tim C., Rosado, Rodrigo Córdova, Coulson, Iain M., Crawford, Thomas M., Crowley, Joseph, David, John, Derome, Mark, Dexter, Matthew, Dornbusch, Sven, Dudevoir, Kevin A., Dzib, Sergio A., Eckert, Chris, Erickson, Neal R., Everett, Wendeline B., Faber, Aaron, Farah, Joseph R., Fath, Vernon, Folkers, Thomas W., Forbes, David C., Freund, Robert, Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I., Gale, David M., Gao, Feng, Geertsema, Gertie, Graham, David A., Greer, Christopher H., Grosslein, Ronald, Gueth, Frédéric, Halverson, Nils W., Han, Chih-Chiang, Han, Kuo-Chang, Hao, Jinchi, Hasegawa, Yutaka, Henning, Jason W., Hernández-Gómez, Antonio, Herrero-Illana, Rubén, Heyminck, Stefan, Hirota, Akihiko, Hoge, James, Huang, Yau-De, Impellizzeri, C. M. Violette, Jiang, Homin, Kamble, Atish, Keisler, Ryan, Kimura, Kimihiro, Kono, Yusuke, Kubo, Derek, Kuroda, John, Lacasse, Richard, Laing, Robert A., Leitch, Erik M., Li, Chao-Te, Lin, Lupin C. -C., Liu, Ching-Tang, Liu, Kuan-Yu, Lu, Li-Ming, Marson, Ralph G., Martin-Cocher, Pierre L., Massingill, Kyle D., Matulonis, Callie, McColl, Martin P., McWhirter, Stephen R., Messias, Hugo, Meyer-Zhao, Zheng, Michalik, Daniel, Montaña, Alfredo, Montgomerie, William, Mora-Klein, Matias, Muders, Dirk, Nadolski, Andrew, Navarro, Santiago, Nguyen, Chi H., Nishioka, Hiroaki, Norton, Timothy, Nystrom, George, Ogawa, Hideo, Oshiro, Peter, Oyama, Tomoaki, Padin, Stephen, Parsons, Harriet, Paine, Scott N., Peñalver, Juan, Phillips, Neil M., Poirier, Michael, Pradel, Nicolas, Primiani, Rurik A., Raffin, Philippe A., Rahlin, Alexandra S., Reiland, George, Risacher, Christopher, Ruiz, Ignacio, Sáez-Madaín, Alejandro F., Sassella, Remi, Schellart, Pim, Shaw, Paul, Silva, Kevin M., Shiokawa, Hotaka, Smith, David R., Snow, William, Souccar, Kamal, Sousa, Don, Sridharan, T. K., Srinivasan, Ranjani, Stahm, William, Stark, Antony A., Story, Kyle, Timmer, Sjoerd T., Vertatschitsch, Laura, Walther, Craig, Wei, Ta-Shun, Whitehorn, Nathan, Whitney, Alan R., Woody, David P., Wouterloot, Jan G. A., Wright, Melvin, Yamaguchi, Paul, Yu, Chen-Yu, Zeballos, Milagros, and Ziurys, Lucy. First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. II. Array and Instrumentation. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ab0c96.
Akiyama, Kazunori, Alberdi, Antxon, Alef, Walter, Asada, Keiichi, Azulay, Rebecca, Baczko, Anne-Kathrin, Ball, David, Baloković, Mislav, Barrett, John, Bintley, Dan, Blackburn, Lindy, Boland, Wilfred, Bouman, Katherine L., Bower, Geoffrey C., Bremer, Michael, Brinkerink, Christiaan D., Brissenden, Roger, Britzen, Silke, Broderick, Avery E., Broguiere, Dominique, Bronzwaer, Thomas, Byun, Do-Young, Carlstrom, John E., Chael, Andrew, Chan, Chi-kwan, Chatterjee, Shami, Chatterjee, Koushik, Chen, Ming-Tang, Chen, Yongjun, Cho, Ilje, Christian, Pierre, Conway, John E., Cordes, James M., Crew, Geoffrey B., Cui, Yuzhu, Davelaar, Jordy, De Laurentis, Mariafelicia, Deane, Roger, Dempsey, Jessica, Desvignes, Gregory, Dexter, Jason, Doeleman, Sheperd S., Eatough, Ralph P., Falcke, Heino, Fish, Vincent L., Fomalont, Ed, Fraga-Encinas, Raquel, Friberg, Per, Fromm, Christian M., Gómez, José L., Galison, Peter, Gammie, Charles F., García, Roberto, Gentaz, Olivier, Georgiev, Boris, Goddi, Ciriaco, Gold, Roman, Gu, Minfeng, Gurwell, Mark, Hada, Kazuhiro, Hecht, Michael H., Hesper, Ronald, Ho, Luis C., Ho, Paul, Honma, Mareki, Huang, Chih-Wei L., Huang, Lei, Hughes, David H., Ikeda, Shiro, Inoue, Makoto, Issaoun, Sara, James, David J., Jannuzi, Buell T., Janssen, Michael, Jeter, Britton, Jiang, Wu, Johnson, Michael D., Jorstad, Svetlana, Jung, Taehyun, Karami, Mansour, Karuppusamy, Ramesh, Kawashima, Tomohisa, Keating, Garrett K., Kettenis, Mark, Kim, Jae-Young, Kim, Junhan, Kim, Jongsoo, Kino, Motoki, Koay, Jun Yi, Koch, Patrick M., Koyama, Shoko, Kramer, Michael, Kramer, Carsten, Krichbaum, Thomas P., Kuo, Cheng-Yu, Lauer, Tod R., Lee, Sang-Sung, Li, Yan-Rong, Li, Zhiyuan, Lindqvist, Michael, Liu, Kuo, Liuzzo, Elisabetta, Lo, Wen-Ping, Lobanov, Andrei P., Loinard, Laurent, Lonsdale, Colin, Lu, Ru-Sen, MacDonald, Nicholas R., Mao, Jirong, Markoff, Sera, Marrone, Daniel P., Marscher, Alan P., Martí-Vidal, Iván, Matsushita, Satoki, Matthews, Lynn D., Medeiros, Lia, Menten, Karl M., Mizuno, Yosuke, Mizuno, Izumi, Moran, James M., Moriyama, Kotaro, Moscibrodzka, Monika, Müller, Cornelia, Nagai, Hiroshi, Nagar, Neil M., Nakamura, Masanori, Narayan, Ramesh, Narayanan, Gopal, Natarajan, Iniyan, Neri, Roberto, Ni, Chunchong, Noutsos, Aristeidis, Okino, Hiroki, Olivares, Héctor, Ortiz-León, Gisela N., Oyama, Tomoaki, Özel, Feryal, Palumbo, Daniel C. M., Patel, Nimesh, Pen, Ue-Li, Pesce, Dominic W., Piétu, Vincent, Plambeck, Richard, PopStefanija, Aleksandar, Porth, Oliver, Prather, Ben, Preciado-López, Jorge A., Psaltis, Dimitrios, Pu, Hung-Yi, Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh, Rao, Ramprasad, Rawlings, Mark G., Raymond, Alexander W., Rezzolla, Luciano, Ripperda, Bart, Roelofs, Freek, Rogers, Alan, Ros, Eduardo, Rose, Mel, Roshanineshat, Arash, Rottmann, Helge, Roy, Alan L., Ruszczyk, Chet, Ryan, Benjamin R., Rygl, Kazi L. J., Sánchez, Salvador, Sánchez-Arguelles, David, Sasada, Mahito, Savolainen, Tuomas, Schloerb, F. Peter, Schuster, Karl-Friedrich, Shao, Lijing, Shen, Zhiqiang, Small, Des, Sohn, Bong Won, SooHoo, Jason, Tazaki, Fumie, Tiede, Paul, Tilanus, Remo P. J., Titus, Michael, Toma, Kenji, Torne, Pablo, Trent, Tyler, Trippe, Sascha, Tsuda, Shuichiro, van Bemmel, Ilse, van Langevelde, Huib Jan, van Rossum, Daniel R., Wagner, Jan, Wardle, John, Weintroub, Jonathan, Wex, Norbert, Wharton, Robert, Wielgus, Maciek, Wong, George N., Wu, Qingwen, Young, André, Young, Ken, Younsi, Ziri, Yuan, Feng, Yuan, Ye-Fei, Zensus, J. Anton, Zhao, Guangyao, Zhao, Shan-Shan, Zhu, Ziyan, Algaba, Juan-Carlos, Allardi, Alexander, Amestica, Rodrigo, Bach, Uwe, Beaudoin, Christopher, Benson, Bradford A., Berthold, Ryan, Blanchard, Jay M., Blundell, Ray, Bustamente, Sandra, Cappallo, Roger, Castillo-Domínguez, Edgar, Chang, Chih-Cheng, Chang, Shu-Hao, Chang, Song-Chu, Chen, Chung-Chen, Chilson, Ryan, Chuter, Tim C., Rosado, Rodrigo Córdova, Coulson, Iain M., Crawford, Thomas M., Crowley, Joseph, David, John, Derome, Mark, Dexter, Matthew, Dornbusch, Sven, Dudevoir, Kevin A., Dzib, Sergio A., Eckert, Chris, Erickson, Neal R., Everett, Wendeline B., Faber, Aaron, Farah, Joseph R., Fath, Vernon, Folkers, Thomas W., Forbes, David C., Freund, Robert, Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I., Gale, David M., Gao, Feng, Geertsema, Gertie, Graham, David A., Greer, Christopher H., Grosslein, Ronald, Gueth, Frédéric, Halverson, Nils W., Han, Chih-Chiang, Han, Kuo-Chang, Hao, Jinchi, Hasegawa, Yutaka, Henning, Jason W., Hernández-Gómez, Antonio, Herrero-Illana, Rubén, Heyminck, Stefan, Hirota, Akihiko, Hoge, James, Huang, Yau-De, Impellizzeri, C. M. Violette, Jiang, Homin, Kamble, Atish, Keisler, Ryan, Kimura, Kimihiro, Kono, Yusuke, Kubo, Derek, Kuroda, John, Lacasse, Richard, Laing, Robert A., Leitch, Erik M., Li, Chao-Te, Lin, Lupin C. -C., Liu, Ching-Tang, Liu, Kuan-Yu, Lu, Li-Ming, Marson, Ralph G., Martin-Cocher, Pierre L., Massingill, Kyle D., Matulonis, Callie, McColl, Martin P., McWhirter, Stephen R., Messias, Hugo, Meyer-Zhao, Zheng, Michalik, Daniel, Montaña, Alfredo, Montgomerie, William, Mora-Klein, Matias, Muders, Dirk, Nadolski, Andrew, Navarro, Santiago, Nguyen, Chi H., Nishioka, Hiroaki, Norton, Timothy, Nystrom, George, Ogawa, Hideo, Oshiro, Peter, Oyama, Tomoaki, Padin, Stephen, Parsons, Harriet, Paine, Scott N., Peñalver, Juan, Phillips, Neil M., Poirier, Michael, Pradel, Nicolas, Primiani, Rurik A., Raffin, Philippe A., Rahlin, Alexandra S., Reiland, George, Risacher, Christopher, Ruiz, Ignacio, Sáez-Madaín, Alejandro F., Sassella, Remi, Schellart, Pim, Shaw, Paul, Silva, Kevin M., Shiokawa, Hotaka, Smith, David R., Snow, William, Souccar, Kamal, Sousa, Don, Sridharan, T. K., Srinivasan, Ranjani, Stahm, William, Stark, Antony A., Story, Kyle, Timmer, Sjoerd T., Vertatschitsch, Laura, Walther, Craig, Wei, Ta-Shun, Whitehorn, Nathan, Whitney, Alan R., Woody, David P., Wouterloot, Jan G. A., Wright, Melvin, Yamaguchi, Paul, Yu, Chen-Yu, Zeballos, Milagros, & Ziurys, Lucy. First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. II. Array and Instrumentation. United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ab0c96.
Akiyama, Kazunori, Alberdi, Antxon, Alef, Walter, Asada, Keiichi, Azulay, Rebecca, Baczko, Anne-Kathrin, Ball, David, Baloković, Mislav, Barrett, John, Bintley, Dan, Blackburn, Lindy, Boland, Wilfred, Bouman, Katherine L., Bower, Geoffrey C., Bremer, Michael, Brinkerink, Christiaan D., Brissenden, Roger, Britzen, Silke, Broderick, Avery E., Broguiere, Dominique, Bronzwaer, Thomas, Byun, Do-Young, Carlstrom, John E., Chael, Andrew, Chan, Chi-kwan, Chatterjee, Shami, Chatterjee, Koushik, Chen, Ming-Tang, Chen, Yongjun, Cho, Ilje, Christian, Pierre, Conway, John E., Cordes, James M., Crew, Geoffrey B., Cui, Yuzhu, Davelaar, Jordy, De Laurentis, Mariafelicia, Deane, Roger, Dempsey, Jessica, Desvignes, Gregory, Dexter, Jason, Doeleman, Sheperd S., Eatough, Ralph P., Falcke, Heino, Fish, Vincent L., Fomalont, Ed, Fraga-Encinas, Raquel, Friberg, Per, Fromm, Christian M., Gómez, José L., Galison, Peter, Gammie, Charles F., García, Roberto, Gentaz, Olivier, Georgiev, Boris, Goddi, Ciriaco, Gold, Roman, Gu, Minfeng, Gurwell, Mark, Hada, Kazuhiro, Hecht, Michael H., Hesper, Ronald, Ho, Luis C., Ho, Paul, Honma, Mareki, Huang, Chih-Wei L., Huang, Lei, Hughes, David H., Ikeda, Shiro, Inoue, Makoto, Issaoun, Sara, James, David J., Jannuzi, Buell T., Janssen, Michael, Jeter, Britton, Jiang, Wu, Johnson, Michael D., Jorstad, Svetlana, Jung, Taehyun, Karami, Mansour, Karuppusamy, Ramesh, Kawashima, Tomohisa, Keating, Garrett K., Kettenis, Mark, Kim, Jae-Young, Kim, Junhan, Kim, Jongsoo, Kino, Motoki, Koay, Jun Yi, Koch, Patrick M., Koyama, Shoko, Kramer, Michael, Kramer, Carsten, Krichbaum, Thomas P., Kuo, Cheng-Yu, Lauer, Tod R., Lee, Sang-Sung, Li, Yan-Rong, Li, Zhiyuan, Lindqvist, Michael, Liu, Kuo, Liuzzo, Elisabetta, Lo, Wen-Ping, Lobanov, Andrei P., Loinard, Laurent, Lonsdale, Colin, Lu, Ru-Sen, MacDonald, Nicholas R., Mao, Jirong, Markoff, Sera, Marrone, Daniel P., Marscher, Alan P., Martí-Vidal, Iván, Matsushita, Satoki, Matthews, Lynn D., Medeiros, Lia, Menten, Karl M., Mizuno, Yosuke, Mizuno, Izumi, Moran, James M., Moriyama, Kotaro, Moscibrodzka, Monika, Müller, Cornelia, Nagai, Hiroshi, Nagar, Neil M., Nakamura, Masanori, Narayan, Ramesh, Narayanan, Gopal, Natarajan, Iniyan, Neri, Roberto, Ni, Chunchong, Noutsos, Aristeidis, Okino, Hiroki, Olivares, Héctor, Ortiz-León, Gisela N., Oyama, Tomoaki, Özel, Feryal, Palumbo, Daniel C. M., Patel, Nimesh, Pen, Ue-Li, Pesce, Dominic W., Piétu, Vincent, Plambeck, Richard, PopStefanija, Aleksandar, Porth, Oliver, Prather, Ben, Preciado-López, Jorge A., Psaltis, Dimitrios, Pu, Hung-Yi, Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh, Rao, Ramprasad, Rawlings, Mark G., Raymond, Alexander W., Rezzolla, Luciano, Ripperda, Bart, Roelofs, Freek, Rogers, Alan, Ros, Eduardo, Rose, Mel, Roshanineshat, Arash, Rottmann, Helge, Roy, Alan L., Ruszczyk, Chet, Ryan, Benjamin R., Rygl, Kazi L. J., Sánchez, Salvador, Sánchez-Arguelles, David, Sasada, Mahito, Savolainen, Tuomas, Schloerb, F. Peter, Schuster, Karl-Friedrich, Shao, Lijing, Shen, Zhiqiang, Small, Des, Sohn, Bong Won, SooHoo, Jason, Tazaki, Fumie, Tiede, Paul, Tilanus, Remo P. J., Titus, Michael, Toma, Kenji, Torne, Pablo, Trent, Tyler, Trippe, Sascha, Tsuda, Shuichiro, van Bemmel, Ilse, van Langevelde, Huib Jan, van Rossum, Daniel R., Wagner, Jan, Wardle, John, Weintroub, Jonathan, Wex, Norbert, Wharton, Robert, Wielgus, Maciek, Wong, George N., Wu, Qingwen, Young, André, Young, Ken, Younsi, Ziri, Yuan, Feng, Yuan, Ye-Fei, Zensus, J. Anton, Zhao, Guangyao, Zhao, Shan-Shan, Zhu, Ziyan, Algaba, Juan-Carlos, Allardi, Alexander, Amestica, Rodrigo, Bach, Uwe, Beaudoin, Christopher, Benson, Bradford A., Berthold, Ryan, Blanchard, Jay M., Blundell, Ray, Bustamente, Sandra, Cappallo, Roger, Castillo-Domínguez, Edgar, Chang, Chih-Cheng, Chang, Shu-Hao, Chang, Song-Chu, Chen, Chung-Chen, Chilson, Ryan, Chuter, Tim C., Rosado, Rodrigo Córdova, Coulson, Iain M., Crawford, Thomas M., Crowley, Joseph, David, John, Derome, Mark, Dexter, Matthew, Dornbusch, Sven, Dudevoir, Kevin A., Dzib, Sergio A., Eckert, Chris, Erickson, Neal R., Everett, Wendeline B., Faber, Aaron, Farah, Joseph R., Fath, Vernon, Folkers, Thomas W., Forbes, David C., Freund, Robert, Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I., Gale, David M., Gao, Feng, Geertsema, Gertie, Graham, David A., Greer, Christopher H., Grosslein, Ronald, Gueth, Frédéric, Halverson, Nils W., Han, Chih-Chiang, Han, Kuo-Chang, Hao, Jinchi, Hasegawa, Yutaka, Henning, Jason W., Hernández-Gómez, Antonio, Herrero-Illana, Rubén, Heyminck, Stefan, Hirota, Akihiko, Hoge, James, Huang, Yau-De, Impellizzeri, C. M. Violette, Jiang, Homin, Kamble, Atish, Keisler, Ryan, Kimura, Kimihiro, Kono, Yusuke, Kubo, Derek, Kuroda, John, Lacasse, Richard, Laing, Robert A., Leitch, Erik M., Li, Chao-Te, Lin, Lupin C. -C., Liu, Ching-Tang, Liu, Kuan-Yu, Lu, Li-Ming, Marson, Ralph G., Martin-Cocher, Pierre L., Massingill, Kyle D., Matulonis, Callie, McColl, Martin P., McWhirter, Stephen R., Messias, Hugo, Meyer-Zhao, Zheng, Michalik, Daniel, Montaña, Alfredo, Montgomerie, William, Mora-Klein, Matias, Muders, Dirk, Nadolski, Andrew, Navarro, Santiago, Nguyen, Chi H., Nishioka, Hiroaki, Norton, Timothy, Nystrom, George, Ogawa, Hideo, Oshiro, Peter, Oyama, Tomoaki, Padin, Stephen, Parsons, Harriet, Paine, Scott N., Peñalver, Juan, Phillips, Neil M., Poirier, Michael, Pradel, Nicolas, Primiani, Rurik A., Raffin, Philippe A., Rahlin, Alexandra S., Reiland, George, Risacher, Christopher, Ruiz, Ignacio, Sáez-Madaín, Alejandro F., Sassella, Remi, Schellart, Pim, Shaw, Paul, Silva, Kevin M., Shiokawa, Hotaka, Smith, David R., Snow, William, Souccar, Kamal, Sousa, Don, Sridharan, T. K., Srinivasan, Ranjani, Stahm, William, Stark, Antony A., Story, Kyle, Timmer, Sjoerd T., Vertatschitsch, Laura, Walther, Craig, Wei, Ta-Shun, Whitehorn, Nathan, Whitney, Alan R., Woody, David P., Wouterloot, Jan G. A., Wright, Melvin, Yamaguchi, Paul, Yu, Chen-Yu, Zeballos, Milagros, and Ziurys, Lucy. Wed . "First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. II. Array and Instrumentation". United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ab0c96. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1508024.
@article{osti_1508024,
title = {First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. II. Array and Instrumentation},
author = {Akiyama, Kazunori and Alberdi, Antxon and Alef, Walter and Asada, Keiichi and Azulay, Rebecca and Baczko, Anne-Kathrin and Ball, David and Baloković, Mislav and Barrett, John and Bintley, Dan and Blackburn, Lindy and Boland, Wilfred and Bouman, Katherine L. and Bower, Geoffrey C. and Bremer, Michael and Brinkerink, Christiaan D. and Brissenden, Roger and Britzen, Silke and Broderick, Avery E. and Broguiere, Dominique and Bronzwaer, Thomas and Byun, Do-Young and Carlstrom, John E. and Chael, Andrew and Chan, Chi-kwan and Chatterjee, Shami and Chatterjee, Koushik and Chen, Ming-Tang and Chen, Yongjun and Cho, Ilje and Christian, Pierre and Conway, John E. and Cordes, James M. and Crew, Geoffrey B. and Cui, Yuzhu and Davelaar, Jordy and De Laurentis, Mariafelicia and Deane, Roger and Dempsey, Jessica and Desvignes, Gregory and Dexter, Jason and Doeleman, Sheperd S. and Eatough, Ralph P. and Falcke, Heino and Fish, Vincent L. and Fomalont, Ed and Fraga-Encinas, Raquel and Friberg, Per and Fromm, Christian M. and Gómez, José L. and Galison, Peter and Gammie, Charles F. and García, Roberto and Gentaz, Olivier and Georgiev, Boris and Goddi, Ciriaco and Gold, Roman and Gu, Minfeng and Gurwell, Mark and Hada, Kazuhiro and Hecht, Michael H. and Hesper, Ronald and Ho, Luis C. and Ho, Paul and Honma, Mareki and Huang, Chih-Wei L. and Huang, Lei and Hughes, David H. and Ikeda, Shiro and Inoue, Makoto and Issaoun, Sara and James, David J. and Jannuzi, Buell T. and Janssen, Michael and Jeter, Britton and Jiang, Wu and Johnson, Michael D. and Jorstad, Svetlana and Jung, Taehyun and Karami, Mansour and Karuppusamy, Ramesh and Kawashima, Tomohisa and Keating, Garrett K. and Kettenis, Mark and Kim, Jae-Young and Kim, Junhan and Kim, Jongsoo and Kino, Motoki and Koay, Jun Yi and Koch, Patrick M. and Koyama, Shoko and Kramer, Michael and Kramer, Carsten and Krichbaum, Thomas P. and Kuo, Cheng-Yu and Lauer, Tod R. and Lee, Sang-Sung and Li, Yan-Rong and Li, Zhiyuan and Lindqvist, Michael and Liu, Kuo and Liuzzo, Elisabetta and Lo, Wen-Ping and Lobanov, Andrei P. and Loinard, Laurent and Lonsdale, Colin and Lu, Ru-Sen and MacDonald, Nicholas R. and Mao, Jirong and Markoff, Sera and Marrone, Daniel P. and Marscher, Alan P. and Martí-Vidal, Iván and Matsushita, Satoki and Matthews, Lynn D. and Medeiros, Lia and Menten, Karl M. and Mizuno, Yosuke and Mizuno, Izumi and Moran, James M. and Moriyama, Kotaro and Moscibrodzka, Monika and Müller, Cornelia and Nagai, Hiroshi and Nagar, Neil M. and Nakamura, Masanori and Narayan, Ramesh and Narayanan, Gopal and Natarajan, Iniyan and Neri, Roberto and Ni, Chunchong and Noutsos, Aristeidis and Okino, Hiroki and Olivares, Héctor and Ortiz-León, Gisela N. and Oyama, Tomoaki and Özel, Feryal and Palumbo, Daniel C. M. and Patel, Nimesh and Pen, Ue-Li and Pesce, Dominic W. and Piétu, Vincent and Plambeck, Richard and PopStefanija, Aleksandar and Porth, Oliver and Prather, Ben and Preciado-López, Jorge A. and Psaltis, Dimitrios and Pu, Hung-Yi and Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh and Rao, Ramprasad and Rawlings, Mark G. and Raymond, Alexander W. and Rezzolla, Luciano and Ripperda, Bart and Roelofs, Freek and Rogers, Alan and Ros, Eduardo and Rose, Mel and Roshanineshat, Arash and Rottmann, Helge and Roy, Alan L. and Ruszczyk, Chet and Ryan, Benjamin R. and Rygl, Kazi L. J. and Sánchez, Salvador and Sánchez-Arguelles, David and Sasada, Mahito and Savolainen, Tuomas and Schloerb, F. Peter and Schuster, Karl-Friedrich and Shao, Lijing and Shen, Zhiqiang and Small, Des and Sohn, Bong Won and SooHoo, Jason and Tazaki, Fumie and Tiede, Paul and Tilanus, Remo P. J. and Titus, Michael and Toma, Kenji and Torne, Pablo and Trent, Tyler and Trippe, Sascha and Tsuda, Shuichiro and van Bemmel, Ilse and van Langevelde, Huib Jan and van Rossum, Daniel R. and Wagner, Jan and Wardle, John and Weintroub, Jonathan and Wex, Norbert and Wharton, Robert and Wielgus, Maciek and Wong, George N. and Wu, Qingwen and Young, André and Young, Ken and Younsi, Ziri and Yuan, Feng and Yuan, Ye-Fei and Zensus, J. Anton and Zhao, Guangyao and Zhao, Shan-Shan and Zhu, Ziyan and Algaba, Juan-Carlos and Allardi, Alexander and Amestica, Rodrigo and Bach, Uwe and Beaudoin, Christopher and Benson, Bradford A. and Berthold, Ryan and Blanchard, Jay M. and Blundell, Ray and Bustamente, Sandra and Cappallo, Roger and Castillo-Domínguez, Edgar and Chang, Chih-Cheng and Chang, Shu-Hao and Chang, Song-Chu and Chen, Chung-Chen and Chilson, Ryan and Chuter, Tim C. and Rosado, Rodrigo Córdova and Coulson, Iain M. and Crawford, Thomas M. and Crowley, Joseph and David, John and Derome, Mark and Dexter, Matthew and Dornbusch, Sven and Dudevoir, Kevin A. and Dzib, Sergio A. and Eckert, Chris and Erickson, Neal R. and Everett, Wendeline B. and Faber, Aaron and Farah, Joseph R. and Fath, Vernon and Folkers, Thomas W. and Forbes, David C. and Freund, Robert and Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I. and Gale, David M. and Gao, Feng and Geertsema, Gertie and Graham, David A. and Greer, Christopher H. and Grosslein, Ronald and Gueth, Frédéric and Halverson, Nils W. and Han, Chih-Chiang and Han, Kuo-Chang and Hao, Jinchi and Hasegawa, Yutaka and Henning, Jason W. and Hernández-Gómez, Antonio and Herrero-Illana, Rubén and Heyminck, Stefan and Hirota, Akihiko and Hoge, James and Huang, Yau-De and Impellizzeri, C. M. Violette and Jiang, Homin and Kamble, Atish and Keisler, Ryan and Kimura, Kimihiro and Kono, Yusuke and Kubo, Derek and Kuroda, John and Lacasse, Richard and Laing, Robert A. and Leitch, Erik M. and Li, Chao-Te and Lin, Lupin C. -C. and Liu, Ching-Tang and Liu, Kuan-Yu and Lu, Li-Ming and Marson, Ralph G. and Martin-Cocher, Pierre L. and Massingill, Kyle D. and Matulonis, Callie and McColl, Martin P. and McWhirter, Stephen R. and Messias, Hugo and Meyer-Zhao, Zheng and Michalik, Daniel and Montaña, Alfredo and Montgomerie, William and Mora-Klein, Matias and Muders, Dirk and Nadolski, Andrew and Navarro, Santiago and Nguyen, Chi H. and Nishioka, Hiroaki and Norton, Timothy and Nystrom, George and Ogawa, Hideo and Oshiro, Peter and Oyama, Tomoaki and Padin, Stephen and Parsons, Harriet and Paine, Scott N. and Peñalver, Juan and Phillips, Neil M. and Poirier, Michael and Pradel, Nicolas and Primiani, Rurik A. and Raffin, Philippe A. and Rahlin, Alexandra S. and Reiland, George and Risacher, Christopher and Ruiz, Ignacio and Sáez-Madaín, Alejandro F. and Sassella, Remi and Schellart, Pim and Shaw, Paul and Silva, Kevin M. and Shiokawa, Hotaka and Smith, David R. and Snow, William and Souccar, Kamal and Sousa, Don and Sridharan, T. K. and Srinivasan, Ranjani and Stahm, William and Stark, Antony A. and Story, Kyle and Timmer, Sjoerd T. and Vertatschitsch, Laura and Walther, Craig and Wei, Ta-Shun and Whitehorn, Nathan and Whitney, Alan R. and Woody, David P. and Wouterloot, Jan G. A. and Wright, Melvin and Yamaguchi, Paul and Yu, Chen-Yu and Zeballos, Milagros and Ziurys, Lucy},
abstractNote = {The Event Horizon Telescope(EHT)is a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) array that comprises millimeter- and submillimeter-wavelength telescopes separated by distances comparable to the diameter of the Earth. At a nominal operating wavelength of ~1.3 mm, EHT angular resolution(λ/D)is ~25μas, which is sufficient to resolve nearby supermassive black hole candidates on spatial and temporal scales that correspond to their event horizons. With this capability, the EHT scientific goals are to probe general relativistic effects in the strong-field regime and to study accretion and relativistic jet formation near the black hole boundary. In this Letterwe describe the system design of the EHT, detail the technology and instrumentation that enable observations, and provide measures of its performance. Meeting the EHT science objectives has required several key developments that have facilitated the robust extension of the VLBI technique to EHT observing wavelengths and the production of instrumentation that can be deployed on a heterogeneous array of existing telescopes and facilities. To meet sensitivity requirements, high-bandwidth digital systems were developed that process data at rates of 64 gigabit s-1, exceeding those of currently operating cm-wavelength VLBI arrays by more than an order of magnitude. Associated improvements include the development of phasing systems at array facilities, new receiver installation at several sites, and the deployment of hydrogen maser frequency standards to ensure coherent data capture across the array. These efforts led to the coordination and execution of the first Global EHT observations in2017 April, and to event-horizon-scale imaging of the supermassive black hole candidate in M87.},
doi = {10.3847/2041-8213/ab0c96},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal. Letters},
number = 1,
volume = 875,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {4}
}

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