skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Embedded metallized optical fibers for high temperature applications

Abstract

Embedding fiber optics in metal components could enable new capabilities such as active monitoring of spatially distributed strain. Ultrasonic additive manufacturing is a suitable technique for embedding fiber optics because it allows fibers to be embedded in metals without melting and without the use of epoxy. However, for harsh environments that could have high temperatures or high radiation doses, traditional polymer-coated fibers cannot survive for extended periods of time. This work demonstrates successful embedding of commercially available copper-, nickel-, and aluminum-coated fibers into aluminum without any observable damage to the fiber. Copper-coated fibers embedded in copper show adequate light transmission, although residual strain could not be resolved. With further processing improvements, fibers embedded in copper or other high-temperature materials could enable even higher temperature operation. Optical transmission and spatially distributed strain were measured in the fibers embedded in aluminum. Measurements were taken after embedding and during heating to temperatures greater than 500 °C. Within the embedded region, both the copper- and aluminum-coated fibers showed strain that matched the expected strain in the surrounding aluminum matrix during heating. This suggests a strong interfacial bond strength that exceeds the maximum estimated fiber strain of 1.2% (871 MPa tensile stress). Furthermore this demonstrationmore » of embedded fibers that can survive high temperatures and remain bonded to the metal matrix is the first step toward embedded fiber optic sensors for harsh environment applications.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [4]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
  3. Fabrisonic LLC, Columbus, OH (United States)
  4. Sheridan Solutions LLC, Saline, MI (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1507865
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Smart Materials and Structures
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 28; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 0964-1726
Publisher:
IOP Publishing
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; embedded; fiber optic; sensing; ultrasonic additive manufacturing; structural health monitoring; high temperature

Citation Formats

Petrie, Christian M., Sridharan, Niyanth, Subramanian, Mohan, Hehr, Adam, Norfolk, Mark, and Sheridan, John. Embedded metallized optical fibers for high temperature applications. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-665X/ab0b4e.
Petrie, Christian M., Sridharan, Niyanth, Subramanian, Mohan, Hehr, Adam, Norfolk, Mark, & Sheridan, John. Embedded metallized optical fibers for high temperature applications. United States. https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-665X/ab0b4e
Petrie, Christian M., Sridharan, Niyanth, Subramanian, Mohan, Hehr, Adam, Norfolk, Mark, and Sheridan, John. Fri . "Embedded metallized optical fibers for high temperature applications". United States. https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-665X/ab0b4e. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1507865.
@article{osti_1507865,
title = {Embedded metallized optical fibers for high temperature applications},
author = {Petrie, Christian M. and Sridharan, Niyanth and Subramanian, Mohan and Hehr, Adam and Norfolk, Mark and Sheridan, John},
abstractNote = {Embedding fiber optics in metal components could enable new capabilities such as active monitoring of spatially distributed strain. Ultrasonic additive manufacturing is a suitable technique for embedding fiber optics because it allows fibers to be embedded in metals without melting and without the use of epoxy. However, for harsh environments that could have high temperatures or high radiation doses, traditional polymer-coated fibers cannot survive for extended periods of time. This work demonstrates successful embedding of commercially available copper-, nickel-, and aluminum-coated fibers into aluminum without any observable damage to the fiber. Copper-coated fibers embedded in copper show adequate light transmission, although residual strain could not be resolved. With further processing improvements, fibers embedded in copper or other high-temperature materials could enable even higher temperature operation. Optical transmission and spatially distributed strain were measured in the fibers embedded in aluminum. Measurements were taken after embedding and during heating to temperatures greater than 500 °C. Within the embedded region, both the copper- and aluminum-coated fibers showed strain that matched the expected strain in the surrounding aluminum matrix during heating. This suggests a strong interfacial bond strength that exceeds the maximum estimated fiber strain of 1.2% (871 MPa tensile stress). Furthermore this demonstration of embedded fibers that can survive high temperatures and remain bonded to the metal matrix is the first step toward embedded fiber optic sensors for harsh environment applications.},
doi = {10.1088/1361-665X/ab0b4e},
journal = {Smart Materials and Structures},
number = 5,
volume = 28,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {4}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1 work
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

In Situ Thermally Induced Attenuation in Sapphire Optical Fibers Heated to 1400°C
journal, October 2014

  • Petrie, Christian M.; Blue, Thomas E.
  • Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 98, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/jace.13289

High‐temperature effects on the light transmission through sapphire optical fiber
journal, March 2018

  • Wilson, Brandon A.; Petrie, Christian M.; Blue, Thomas E.
  • Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 101, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1111/jace.15515

Evaluation of the Performance of Distributed Temperature Measurements With Single-Mode Fiber Using Rayleigh Backscatter up to 1000$^{\circ}{\rm C}$
journal, January 2014


Devitrification in annealed optical fiber
journal, May 1997

  • Rose, A. H.
  • Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 15, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1109/50.580819

The Optic Oil Field: Deployment and Application of Permanent In-well Fiber Optic Sensing Systems for Production and Reservoir Monitoring
conference, April 2013

  • Kragas, Tor K.; Williams, Brock A.; Myers, Gregory A.
  • SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition
  • DOI: 10.2118/71529-MS

High Level Gamma and Neutron Irradiation of Silica Optical Fibers in CEA OSIRIS Nuclear Reactor
journal, August 2008

  • Cheymol, Guy; Long, HervÉ; Villard, Jean FranÇois
  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Vol. 55, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1109/TNS.2008.924056

In Situ Gamma Radiation-Induced Attenuation in Sapphire Optical Fibers Heated to 1000°C
journal, July 2014

  • Petrie, Christian M.; Wilson, Brandon; Blue, Thomas E.
  • Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 97, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1111/jace.13089

In situ reactor radiation-induced attenuation in sapphire optical fibers heated up to 1000 °C
journal, January 2015

  • Petrie, Christian M.; Blue, Thomas E.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 342
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2014.09.014

In-situ gamma radiation induced attenuation in silica optical fibers heated up to 600°C
journal, November 2013


In-Situ Reactor Radiation-Induced Attenuation in Sapphire Optical Fibers
journal, September 2014

  • Petrie, Christian M.; Windl, Wolfgang; Blue, Thomas E.
  • Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 97, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1111/jace.13211

Radiation resistant fiber Bragg grating in random air-line fibers for sensing applications in nuclear reactor cores
journal, January 2018

  • Zaghloul, Mohamed A. S.; Wang, Mohan; Huang, Sheng
  • Optics Express, Vol. 26, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1364/OE.26.011775

Fiber Optic Sensors in Structural Health Monitoring
journal, February 2011

  • Lopez-Higuera, José Miguel; Rodriguez Cobo, Luis; Quintela Incera, Antonio
  • Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 29, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1109/JLT.2011.2106479

Recent applications of fiber optic sensors to health monitoring in civil engineering
journal, September 2004


Damage detection and assessment in fibre-reinforced composite structures with embedded fibre optic sensors-review
journal, October 2002


Method for embedding optical fibers in an aluminum matrix by ultrasonic consolidation
journal, January 2005


Characterization of embedded fiber optic strain sensors into metallic structures via ultrasonic additive manufacturing
conference, April 2016

  • Schomer, John J.; Hehr, Adam J.; Dapino, Marcelo J.
  • SPIE Smart Structures and Materials + Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring, SPIE Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1117/12.2219690

High Temperature Characterization of Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors Embedded Into Metallic Structures Through Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing
conference, November 2017

  • Schomer, John J.; Dapino, Marcelo J.
  • ASME 2017 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems, Volume 2: Modeling, Simulation and Control of Adaptive Systems; Integrated System Design and Implementation; Structural Health Monitoring
  • DOI: 10.1115/SMASIS2017-3840

Solid-state additive manufacturing for metallized optical fiber integration
journal, September 2015


Integrating Fiber Optic Strain Sensors into Metal Using Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing
journal, December 2017


Ultrasonic embedding of nickel-coated fiber Bragg grating in aluminum and associated sensing characteristics
journal, January 2012


Distributed Strain and Temperature Discrimination in Unaltered Polarization Maintaining Fiber
conference, January 2006

  • Froggatt, Mark E.; Gifford, Dawn K.; Kreger, Stephen T.
  • Optical Fiber Sensors
  • DOI: 10.1364/OFS.2006.ThC5

High-resolution extended distance distributed fiber-optic sensing using rayleigh backscatter
conference, April 2007

  • Kreger, Stephen T.; Gifford, Dawn K.; Froggatt, Mark E.
  • The 14th International Symposium on: Smart Structures and Materials & Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring, SPIE Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1117/12.720913

High resolution optical frequency domain reflectometry for characterization of components and assemblies
journal, January 2005

  • Soller, Brian J.; Gifford, Dawn K.; Wolfe, Matthew S.
  • Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1364/OPEX.13.000666

Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview
journal, January 1997

  • Hill, K. O.; Meltz, G.
  • Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 15, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1109/50.618320

Fiber grating sensors
journal, January 1997

  • Kersey, A. D.; Davis, M. A.; Patrick, H. J.
  • Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 15, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1109/50.618377

Fabrication of metal–matrix composites and adaptive composites using ultrasonic consolidation process
journal, December 2005


Bond formation and fiber embedment during ultrasonic consolidation
journal, June 2009


Bonding characteristics during very high power ultrasonic additive manufacturing of copper
journal, April 2010


Thermal transients during processing of materials by very high power ultrasonic additive manufacturing
journal, October 2011


Fiber Bragg gratings
journal, December 1997

  • Othonos, Andreas
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 68, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1148392

A high temperature attachment for an X-ray diffractometer for precision lattice parameter measurements
journal, April 1965


Measurement of Equilibrium Concentrations of Vacancies in Copper
journal, February 1963


Metal coating of fiber Bragg grating and the temperature sensing character after metallization
journal, August 2009


A plating method for metal coating of fiber Bragg grating [光纤布拉格光栅的镀层金属化保护]
journal, January 2009

  • Yulong Li, 李玉龙; Hua Zhang, 张华; Yan Feng, 冯艳
  • Chinese Optics Letters, Vol. 7, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3788/COL20090702.0115

Optical fibre young modulus measurement using an optical method
journal, May 1992

  • Pigeon, F.; Pelissier, S.; Mure-Ravaud, A.
  • Electronics Letters, Vol. 28, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1049/el:19920656

Strength and fatigue of silica optical fibers
journal, January 1989

  • Kurkjian, C. R.; Krause, J. T.; Matthewson, M. J.
  • Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 7, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1109/50.50715

Temperature and Strain Measurements With Fiber Bragg Gratings Embedded in Stainless Steel 316
journal, June 2015

  • Havermann, Dirk; Mathew, Jinesh; MacPherson, William N.
  • Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 33, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1109/JLT.2014.2366835

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    High-temperature strain monitoring of stainless steel using fiber optics embedded in ultrasonically consolidated nickel layers
    journal, July 2019

    • Petrie, Christian M.; Sridharan, Niyanth; Hehr, Adam
    • Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 28, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1088/1361-665x/ab2a27