## Inverse problem: What can we tell about the matter and energy in our Universe from its dimensionality and evolution

## Abstract

The most well-known theories of everything are assorted versions of the superstring theory. The theories require existence of additional space dimensions, vibrations of which create the material particles in 3D space. The additional space dimensions are understood as being currently smaller than the Planck Length and due to this not directly observable. We search for multidimensional models of the Universe (one time dimension; three isotropic, flat external dimensions, and n-internal dimensions), which satisfy the multidimensional Einstein equations and which started from the same radius of all of the internal and external dimensions, with an anisotropic energy–momentum tensor. Analytical solution of (N+1)-dimensional Einstein equation in a reparameterized time is reminded and discussed. The energy–momentum tensor is solely responsible for expansion of the external dimensions and shrinking of the internal ones; and to obtain this behavior of the space the tensor needs to fulfill some conditions i.e. the energy–momentum tensor cannot include only radiation, vacuum and baryonic matter. For the behavior of the physical space consistent with the one observed in our Universe, the dark energy and/or dark matter have to exist.

- Authors:

- Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

- Publication Date:

- Research Org.:
- Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

- Sponsoring Org.:
- USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

- OSTI Identifier:
- 1507324

- Report Number(s):
- LA-UR-16-29334

Journal ID: ISSN 0218-2165

- Grant/Contract Number:
- 89233218CNA000001

- Resource Type:
- Accepted Manuscript

- Journal Name:
- Journal of Knot Theory and Its Ramifications

- Additional Journal Information:
- Journal Volume: 27; Journal Issue: 07; Journal ID: ISSN 0218-2165

- Country of Publication:
- United States

- Language:
- English

- Subject:
- 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; multi dimensional Universe; dark matter; dark energy; Einstein Equation - analytical solutions; Cosmology; dimension of space-time; Einstein equations; dynamical systems

### Citation Formats

```
Makaruk, Hanna, and Langenbrunner, James. Inverse problem: What can we tell about the matter and energy in our Universe from its dimensionality and evolution. United States: N. p., 2018.
Web. doi:10.1142/S0218216518410055.
```

```
Makaruk, Hanna, & Langenbrunner, James. Inverse problem: What can we tell about the matter and energy in our Universe from its dimensionality and evolution. United States. doi:10.1142/S0218216518410055.
```

```
Makaruk, Hanna, and Langenbrunner, James. Fri .
"Inverse problem: What can we tell about the matter and energy in our Universe from its dimensionality and evolution". United States. doi:10.1142/S0218216518410055. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1507324.
```

```
@article{osti_1507324,
```

title = {Inverse problem: What can we tell about the matter and energy in our Universe from its dimensionality and evolution},

author = {Makaruk, Hanna and Langenbrunner, James},

abstractNote = {The most well-known theories of everything are assorted versions of the superstring theory. The theories require existence of additional space dimensions, vibrations of which create the material particles in 3D space. The additional space dimensions are understood as being currently smaller than the Planck Length and due to this not directly observable. We search for multidimensional models of the Universe (one time dimension; three isotropic, flat external dimensions, and n-internal dimensions), which satisfy the multidimensional Einstein equations and which started from the same radius of all of the internal and external dimensions, with an anisotropic energy–momentum tensor. Analytical solution of (N+1)-dimensional Einstein equation in a reparameterized time is reminded and discussed. The energy–momentum tensor is solely responsible for expansion of the external dimensions and shrinking of the internal ones; and to obtain this behavior of the space the tensor needs to fulfill some conditions i.e. the energy–momentum tensor cannot include only radiation, vacuum and baryonic matter. For the behavior of the physical space consistent with the one observed in our Universe, the dark energy and/or dark matter have to exist.},

doi = {10.1142/S0218216518410055},

journal = {Journal of Knot Theory and Its Ramifications},

number = 07,

volume = 27,

place = {United States},

year = {2018},

month = {6}

}