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Title: Ligands representing important functional groups of natural organic matter facilitate Fe redox transformations and resulting binding environments

Abstract

Functional groups in natural organic matter have the potential to interact with and stabilize iron (Fe) redox species (ferric, ferrous) through complexation reactions. Iron complexes with cysteine, arginine and histidine are used to investigate the extent to which specific functional groups present in these amino acids might hinder the oxidation of Fe 2+ or promote the reduction of Fe 3+. Iron complexes are synthesized by addition of ferrous or ferric salts to cysteine, arginine and histidine solutions at pH 7. The Fe-amino acid complexes are analysed using X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), theoretical CTM4XAS (Charge Transfer Multiplet for XAS) calculations, and vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR and Raman). In addition, oxidation of the amino acids is determined by linear sweep voltammetry and chemical equilibrium modeling is used to predict the speciation of Fe in complexes with the amino acids. It is observed the extent of Fe redox transformation is affected by the electron donating capability of the ligand with which Fe reacts. In particular, the extent of Fe 3+ reduction is related to the oxidation of the ligand with 80, 14 and 0% Fe 3+ reduction by cysteine, arginine and histidine, respectively. Conversely, Fe 2+ is preserved by cysteine (80%) > arginine (77%)more » > histidine (62%). The chemical forms of Fe in these mixed Fe oxidation-state systems include Fe-organic complexes and Fe precipitates. XAS and vibrational spectroscopy indicate thiol-S and amino-N bind Fe in complexes with cysteine. While amino-N and guanidyl-N functional groups of arginine bind Fe, carboxylate-O binding and the formation of Fe precipitates are only observed when Fe 3+ is the predominant redox species. Whereas Fe precipitates seem to prevail in Fe(III)-histidine, distinct organic (Fe—O/N—C) and mineral (Fe—O—Fe) or mixed organic-mineral (Fe(O/N—C) x(O—Fe) y) coordination environments occur in Fe(II)-histidine with ~60% Fe 2+; in either case, Fe—N(imidazole) binding is not evident. The ligand atoms to which Fe binds and the inherent reduction capacity of the ligand appear to mediate Fe redox transformations. The proportion of ferric iron (Fe 3+) seems to determine whether a precipitate forms. Consistent with spectroscopic data, chemical equilibrium modeling using experimental solution conditions and fractional Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ concentrations obtained from CTM4XAS predict the formation of Fe(II)- and Fe(III)-amino acid complexes and hydrolyzed Fe species; these calculations however also predict the formation of Fe oxide precipitates in all Fe complexes. The results presented in this study help to explain the co-occurrence of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ in natural environments where organic matter is present. They also highlight the role specific organic functional groups play on the formation and stabilization of Fe(II, III)-organic complexes and precipitates, and thus on the Fe redox cycle which affects Fe bioavailability and mobility in terrestrial and subsurface environments.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2]
  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  2. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Soil and Crop Sciences. School of Integrative Plant Science
  3. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source-II
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1506634
Report Number(s):
BNL-211518-2019-JAAM
Journal ID: ISSN 0016-7037
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0012704; CHE-0431328; DMR-1719875
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 251; Journal ID: ISSN 0016-7037
Publisher:
The Geochemical Society; The Meteoritical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; iron-ligand; iron speciation; Fe redox transformations; iron-organic matter complexation; amino acids; soil organic matter; multiplet calculations

Citation Formats

Bhattacharyya, Amrita, Schmidt, Michael P., Stavitski, Eli, Azimzadeh, Behrooz, and Martínez, Carmen Enid. Ligands representing important functional groups of natural organic matter facilitate Fe redox transformations and resulting binding environments. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2019.02.027.
Bhattacharyya, Amrita, Schmidt, Michael P., Stavitski, Eli, Azimzadeh, Behrooz, & Martínez, Carmen Enid. Ligands representing important functional groups of natural organic matter facilitate Fe redox transformations and resulting binding environments. United States. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2019.02.027.
Bhattacharyya, Amrita, Schmidt, Michael P., Stavitski, Eli, Azimzadeh, Behrooz, and Martínez, Carmen Enid. Wed . "Ligands representing important functional groups of natural organic matter facilitate Fe redox transformations and resulting binding environments". United States. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2019.02.027.
@article{osti_1506634,
title = {Ligands representing important functional groups of natural organic matter facilitate Fe redox transformations and resulting binding environments},
author = {Bhattacharyya, Amrita and Schmidt, Michael P. and Stavitski, Eli and Azimzadeh, Behrooz and Martínez, Carmen Enid},
abstractNote = {Functional groups in natural organic matter have the potential to interact with and stabilize iron (Fe) redox species (ferric, ferrous) through complexation reactions. Iron complexes with cysteine, arginine and histidine are used to investigate the extent to which specific functional groups present in these amino acids might hinder the oxidation of Fe2+ or promote the reduction of Fe3+. Iron complexes are synthesized by addition of ferrous or ferric salts to cysteine, arginine and histidine solutions at pH 7. The Fe-amino acid complexes are analysed using X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), theoretical CTM4XAS (Charge Transfer Multiplet for XAS) calculations, and vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR and Raman). In addition, oxidation of the amino acids is determined by linear sweep voltammetry and chemical equilibrium modeling is used to predict the speciation of Fe in complexes with the amino acids. It is observed the extent of Fe redox transformation is affected by the electron donating capability of the ligand with which Fe reacts. In particular, the extent of Fe3+ reduction is related to the oxidation of the ligand with 80, 14 and 0% Fe3+ reduction by cysteine, arginine and histidine, respectively. Conversely, Fe2+ is preserved by cysteine (80%) > arginine (77%) > histidine (62%). The chemical forms of Fe in these mixed Fe oxidation-state systems include Fe-organic complexes and Fe precipitates. XAS and vibrational spectroscopy indicate thiol-S and amino-N bind Fe in complexes with cysteine. While amino-N and guanidyl-N functional groups of arginine bind Fe, carboxylate-O binding and the formation of Fe precipitates are only observed when Fe3+ is the predominant redox species. Whereas Fe precipitates seem to prevail in Fe(III)-histidine, distinct organic (Fe—O/N—C) and mineral (Fe—O—Fe) or mixed organic-mineral (Fe(O/N—C)x(O—Fe)y) coordination environments occur in Fe(II)-histidine with ~60% Fe2+; in either case, Fe—N(imidazole) binding is not evident. The ligand atoms to which Fe binds and the inherent reduction capacity of the ligand appear to mediate Fe redox transformations. The proportion of ferric iron (Fe3+) seems to determine whether a precipitate forms. Consistent with spectroscopic data, chemical equilibrium modeling using experimental solution conditions and fractional Fe2+ and Fe3+ concentrations obtained from CTM4XAS predict the formation of Fe(II)- and Fe(III)-amino acid complexes and hydrolyzed Fe species; these calculations however also predict the formation of Fe oxide precipitates in all Fe complexes. The results presented in this study help to explain the co-occurrence of Fe2+ and Fe3+ in natural environments where organic matter is present. They also highlight the role specific organic functional groups play on the formation and stabilization of Fe(II, III)-organic complexes and precipitates, and thus on the Fe redox cycle which affects Fe bioavailability and mobility in terrestrial and subsurface environments.},
doi = {10.1016/j.gca.2019.02.027},
journal = {Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta},
number = ,
volume = 251,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {2}
}

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