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Title: Flow simulation and analysis of high-power flow batteries

Abstract

The cost of a flow battery system can be reduced by increasing its power density and thereby reducing its stack area. If per-pass utilizations are held constant, higher battery power densities can only be achieved using higher flow rates. Here, a 3D computational fluid dynamics model of a flow battery flow field and electrode is used to analyze the implications of increasing flow rates to high power density operating conditions. Interdigitated and serpentine designs, and cell sizes ranging from 10 cm 2 to 400 cm 2, are simulated. The results quantify the dependence of pressure loss on cell size and design, demonstrating that the details of the passages that distribute flow between individual channels and the inlet and outlet have a major impact on pressure losses in larger cells. Additionally, in-cell flow behavior is analyzed as a function of cell size and design. Flow structures are interrogated to show how and where electrode parameters influence pressure drops, and how regions where transport is slow are correlated with the presence of experimentally observed cell degradation.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [1]
  1. Bosch Research and Technology Center, Palo Alto, CA (United States)
  2. Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E)
  3. Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
  4. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E)
OSTI Identifier:
1506247
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1253214
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231; AR0000137
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Power Sources
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 299; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0378-7753
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; Flow batteries; CFD; Simulation; Power density; Pressure loss

Citation Formats

Knudsen, E., Albertus, P., Cho, K. T., Weber, A. Z., and Kojic, A. Flow simulation and analysis of high-power flow batteries. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.08.041.
Knudsen, E., Albertus, P., Cho, K. T., Weber, A. Z., & Kojic, A. Flow simulation and analysis of high-power flow batteries. United States. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.08.041.
Knudsen, E., Albertus, P., Cho, K. T., Weber, A. Z., and Kojic, A. Fri . "Flow simulation and analysis of high-power flow batteries". United States. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.08.041. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1506247.
@article{osti_1506247,
title = {Flow simulation and analysis of high-power flow batteries},
author = {Knudsen, E. and Albertus, P. and Cho, K. T. and Weber, A. Z. and Kojic, A.},
abstractNote = {The cost of a flow battery system can be reduced by increasing its power density and thereby reducing its stack area. If per-pass utilizations are held constant, higher battery power densities can only be achieved using higher flow rates. Here, a 3D computational fluid dynamics model of a flow battery flow field and electrode is used to analyze the implications of increasing flow rates to high power density operating conditions. Interdigitated and serpentine designs, and cell sizes ranging from 10 cm2 to 400 cm2, are simulated. The results quantify the dependence of pressure loss on cell size and design, demonstrating that the details of the passages that distribute flow between individual channels and the inlet and outlet have a major impact on pressure losses in larger cells. Additionally, in-cell flow behavior is analyzed as a function of cell size and design. Flow structures are interrogated to show how and where electrode parameters influence pressure drops, and how regions where transport is slow are correlated with the presence of experimentally observed cell degradation.},
doi = {10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.08.041},
journal = {Journal of Power Sources},
number = C,
volume = 299,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {9}
}

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