skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Analysis framework for systematically studying ionospheric response to impulsive events from below: Analysis Framework Ionospheric Responses

Abstract

We present that impulsive phenomena in the Earth's atmosphere produce acoustic and gravity waves which perturb the ionosphere. Such perturbations are often measured using total electron content fluctuations (TEC), derived from ground-based Global Positioning System data. Using TEC data from the Japanese GEONET ground network after the Tōhoku earthquake on 11 March 2011, we demonstrate capabilities of a new framework of methodologies for analyzing ionospheric perturbations. The framework consists of several new techniques: calculating velocity along a single direction to reduce error due to anisotropic propagation, producing normalized bidirectional band-pass spectra that preserve relative timing between various frequencies and allowing a more systematic determination of broadband pulses, and utilizing a wavelet-based technique that considers instantaneous wave phase changes, rather than best fit time differences, to evaluate wave characteristics (speed, direction, and wavelength) within spectral ranges of interest. Using these techniques together decreases subjectivity and reduces errors in attributing fluctuations to given sources. In validating this framework using the Tōhoku case, we consistently identify three kinds of waves: a broad-band pulse (speed: >2000 m/s, max range: >1400 km) arriving in the ionosphere 10–15 min after the quake, acoustic waves following the pulse (period: 3–5 min, speed: 700–1000 m/s, max range: <500more » km), and gravity waves (period: 10–15 min, speed: 150–500 m/s, max range: >1400 km) propagating away from the epicenter, consistent with theory and demonstrated in previous studies. Lastly, this framework also can be applied to other impulsive events in the atmosphere that are more difficult to detect and attribute to sources.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; Intelligence Community Postdoctoral Fellow Program (IC Postdoc)
OSTI Identifier:
1505988
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-16-28650
Journal ID: ISSN 0048-6604
Grant/Contract Number:  
89233218CNA000001
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Radio Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 52; Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 0048-6604
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; ionosphere; ionospheric disturbances; GPS; Global positioning system; TEC; total electron content; techniques; wave propagation; impulsive events; earthquakes; acoustic; gravity waves

Citation Formats

Haaser, Robert A., Lay, Erin H., and Junor, William. Analysis framework for systematically studying ionospheric response to impulsive events from below: Analysis Framework Ionospheric Responses. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/2016RS006196.
Haaser, Robert A., Lay, Erin H., & Junor, William. Analysis framework for systematically studying ionospheric response to impulsive events from below: Analysis Framework Ionospheric Responses. United States. doi:10.1002/2016RS006196.
Haaser, Robert A., Lay, Erin H., and Junor, William. Thu . "Analysis framework for systematically studying ionospheric response to impulsive events from below: Analysis Framework Ionospheric Responses". United States. doi:10.1002/2016RS006196. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1505988.
@article{osti_1505988,
title = {Analysis framework for systematically studying ionospheric response to impulsive events from below: Analysis Framework Ionospheric Responses},
author = {Haaser, Robert A. and Lay, Erin H. and Junor, William},
abstractNote = {We present that impulsive phenomena in the Earth's atmosphere produce acoustic and gravity waves which perturb the ionosphere. Such perturbations are often measured using total electron content fluctuations (TEC), derived from ground-based Global Positioning System data. Using TEC data from the Japanese GEONET ground network after the Tōhoku earthquake on 11 March 2011, we demonstrate capabilities of a new framework of methodologies for analyzing ionospheric perturbations. The framework consists of several new techniques: calculating velocity along a single direction to reduce error due to anisotropic propagation, producing normalized bidirectional band-pass spectra that preserve relative timing between various frequencies and allowing a more systematic determination of broadband pulses, and utilizing a wavelet-based technique that considers instantaneous wave phase changes, rather than best fit time differences, to evaluate wave characteristics (speed, direction, and wavelength) within spectral ranges of interest. Using these techniques together decreases subjectivity and reduces errors in attributing fluctuations to given sources. In validating this framework using the Tōhoku case, we consistently identify three kinds of waves: a broad-band pulse (speed: >2000 m/s, max range: >1400 km) arriving in the ionosphere 10–15 min after the quake, acoustic waves following the pulse (period: 3–5 min, speed: 700–1000 m/s, max range: <500 km), and gravity waves (period: 10–15 min, speed: 150–500 m/s, max range: >1400 km) propagating away from the epicenter, consistent with theory and demonstrated in previous studies. Lastly, this framework also can be applied to other impulsive events in the atmosphere that are more difficult to detect and attribute to sources.},
doi = {10.1002/2016RS006196},
journal = {Radio Science},
number = 9,
volume = 52,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {8}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 2 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Detection and modelling of the ionospheric perturbation caused by a Space Shuttle launch using a network of ground-based Global Positioning System stations
journal, January 2013

  • Bowling, Timothy; Calais, Eric; Haase, Jennifer S.
  • Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 192, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/gji/ggs101

GPS Discrimination of Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances from Underground Nuclear Explosions and Earthquakes: GPS Discrimination of TID from UNE and Earthquake
journal, June 2014

  • Park, Jihye; Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota A.; von Frese, Ralph R. B.
  • Navigation, Vol. 61, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/navi.56

Thermosphere-ionosphere coupling: An experiment in interactive modeling
journal, January 1990

  • Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Roble, Raymond G.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 95, Issue A1
  • DOI: 10.1029/JA095iA01p00201

Discriminating the tectonic and non-tectonic contributions in the ionospheric signature of the 2011, M w 7.1, dip-slip Van earthquake, Eastern Turkey : VAN EARTHQUAKE IONOSPHERIC SIGNATURE
journal, June 2013

  • Rolland, Lucie M.; Vergnolle, Mathilde; Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 40, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1002/grl.50544

Detecting ionospheric TEC perturbations caused by natural hazards using a global network of GPS receivers: The Tohoku case study
journal, December 2012

  • Komjathy, A.; Galvan, D. A.; Stephens, P.
  • Earth, Planets and Space, Vol. 64, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.5047/eps.2012.08.003

Ionospheric signatures of Tohoku-Oki tsunami of March 11, 2011: Model comparisons near the epicenter: TSUNAMI IONOSPHERIC SIGNATURES NEAR EPICENTER
journal, July 2012

  • Galvan, David A.; Komjathy, Attila; Hickey, Michael P.
  • Radio Science, Vol. 47, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012RS005023

The 2013 Chelyabinsk meteor ionospheric impact studied using GPS measurements: GPS SENSING OF METEOR IONOSPHERIC IMPACT
journal, May 2014

  • Yang, Yu-Ming; Komjathy, Attila; Langley, Richard B.
  • Radio Science, Vol. 49, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013RS005344

First ionospheric images of the seismic fault slip on the example of the Tohoku-oki earthquake: IONOSPHERE IMAGES FOR THE SEISMIC SLIP
journal, November 2011

  • Astafyeva, Elvira; Lognonné, Philippe; Rolland, Lucie
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 38, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049623

Ionospheric disturbances detected by GPS total electron content observation after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake
journal, July 2011


Ionospheric response to infrasonic‐acoustic waves generated by natural hazard events
journal, September 2015

  • Zettergren, M. D.; Snively, J. B.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 120, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021116

Directivity and apparent velocity of the coseismic ionospheric disturbances observed with a dense GPS array
journal, August 2005


Numerical modeling of the global changes to the thermosphere and ionosphere from the dissipation of gravity waves from deep convection
journal, September 2014

  • Vadas, S. L.; Liu, H. -L.; Lieberman, R. S.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 119, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020280

Gravity wave dynamics and effects in the middle atmosphere
journal, January 2003


Detection and modeling of Rayleigh wave induced patterns in the ionosphere: RAYLEIGH WAVE PATTERNS IN THE IONOSPHERE
journal, May 2011

  • Rolland, Lucie M.; Lognonné, Philippe; Munekane, Hiroshi
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 116, Issue A5
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010JA016060

Thermospheric responses to gravity waves arising from mesoscale convective complexes
journal, April 2004

  • Vadas, Sharon L.; Fritts, David C.
  • Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Vol. 66, Issue 6-9
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2004.01.025

Explosion energy of the 2004 eruption of the Asama Volcano, central Japan, inferred from ionospheric disturbances
journal, January 2006


Ionospheric disturbances triggered by the 11 March 2011 M 9.0 Tohoku earthquake : BRIEF REPORT
journal, June 2011

  • Liu, Jann-Yenq; Chen, Chia-Hung; Lin, Chien-Hung
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 116, Issue A6
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011JA016761

Ionospheric signatures of acoustic waves generated by transient tropospheric forcing: ACOUSTIC WAVES IN THE IONOSPHERE
journal, October 2013

  • Zettergren, M. D.; Snively, J. B.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 40, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058018

Chelyabinsk Airburst, Damage Assessment, Meteorite Recovery, and Characterization
journal, November 2013


An Algorithm for Least-Squares Estimation of Nonlinear Parameters
journal, June 1963

  • Marquardt, Donald W.
  • Journal of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Vol. 11, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1137/0111030

Characteristics of low-latitude ionospheric depletions and enhancements during solar minimum: BUBBLE AND BLOB CHARACTERISTICS
journal, October 2012

  • Haaser, R. A.; Earle, G. D.; Heelis, R. A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 117, Issue A10
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012JA017814

Ionospheric disturbances observed coincident with the 2006 and 2009 North Korean underground nuclear tests: TIDs FROM UNDERGROUND NUCLEAR TESTS
journal, January 2012

  • Yang, Yu-Ming; Garrison, James L.; Lee, See-Chen
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 39, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011GL050428

Total electron content processing from GPS observations to facilitate ionospheric modeling
journal, September 2008

  • Burrell, Angeline G.; Bonito, Nelson A.; Carrano, Charles S.
  • GPS Solutions, Vol. 13, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10291-008-0102-3

The origin of infrasonic ionosphere oscillations over tropospheric thunderstorms: IONOSPHERIC INFRASOUND FROM THUNDERSTORM
journal, July 2016

  • Shao, Xuan-Min; Lay, Erin H.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 121, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015JA022118

From Sumatra 2004 to Tohoku-Oki 2011: The systematic GPS detection of the ionospheric signature induced by tsunamigenic earthquakes: IONO-TSUNAMIS FROM SUMATRA TO JAPAN
journal, June 2013

  • Occhipinti, Giovanni; Rolland, Lucie; Lognonné, Philippe
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 118, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1002/jgra.50322

A method for the solution of certain non-linear problems in least squares
journal, January 1944

  • Levenberg, Kenneth
  • Quarterly of Applied Mathematics, Vol. 2, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1090/qam/10666

Medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances detected with dense and wide TEC maps over North America
journal, January 2007

  • Tsugawa, T.; Otsuka, Y.; Coster, A. J.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007GL031663

Mesospheric concentric gravity waves generated by multiple convective storms over the North American Great Plain: CONCENTRIC GRAVITY WAVES
journal, April 2012

  • Vadas, Sharon; Yue, Jia; Nakamura, Takuji
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 117, Issue D7
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011JD017025

Wavelet analysis for geophysical applications
journal, November 1997

  • Kumar, Praveen; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi
  • Reviews of Geophysics, Vol. 35, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1029/97RG00427

GPS radio interferometry of travelling ionospheric disturbances
journal, January 1998

  • Afraimovich, E. L.; Palamartchouk, K. S.; Perevalova, N. P.
  • Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Vol. 60, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1016/S1364-6826(98)00074-1

Ionospheric detection of the 25 May 2009 North Korean underground nuclear test: IONO DETECTION OF NORTH KOREAN UNE
journal, November 2011

  • Park, Jihye; von Frese, Ralph R. B.; Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota A.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 38, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049430

Determining the initial states in forward-backward filtering
journal, April 1996

  • Gustafsson, F.
  • IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 44, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1109/78.492552

The phases and amplitudes of gravity waves propagating and dissipating in the thermosphere: Theory: PHASES AND AMPLITUDES-THEORY
journal, May 2012

  • Vadas, S. L.; Nicolls, M. J.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 117, Issue A5
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011JA017426

Mitigating satellite motion in GPS monitoring of traveling ionospheric disturbances
journal, November 2015


Measurement of the Characteristics of TIDs Using Small and Regional Networks of GPS Receivers during the Campaign of 17–30 July of 2008
journal, January 2012

  • Valladares, Cesar E.; Hei, Matthew A.
  • International Journal of Geophysics, Vol. 2012
  • DOI: 10.1155/2012/548784

Numerical simulations of atmospheric waves excited by the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake
journal, July 2011


Parameters of seismic source as deduced from 1 Hz ionospheric GPS data: Case study of the 2011 Tohoku-oki event: IMAGING OF SEISMIC SLIP FROM IONOSPHERE
journal, September 2013

  • Astafyeva, E.; Rolland, L.; Lognonné, P.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 118, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1002/jgra.50556

Emerging applications of wavelets: A review
journal, March 2010


Ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves associated with midlatitude thunderstorms: ACOUSTIC/GRAVITY WAVES FROM THUNDERSTORM
journal, July 2015

  • Lay, Erin H.; Shao, Xuan-Min; Kendrick, Alexander K.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 120, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021334

The use of GPS arrays in detecting the ionospheric response during rocket launchings
journal, November 2000

  • Afraimovich, Edward L.; Kosogorov, Eugene A.; Palamarchouk, Kirill S.
  • Earth, Planets and Space, Vol. 52, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1186/BF03352331

The trajectory, structure and origin of the Chelyabinsk asteroidal impactor
journal, November 2013

  • Borovička, Jiří; Spurný, Pavel; Brown, Peter
  • Nature, Vol. 503, Issue 7475
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature12671

Variation in total electron content above large thunderstorms: TEC VARIATION ABOVE THUNDERSTORMS
journal, May 2013

  • Lay, Erin H.; Shao, Xuan-Min; Carrano, Charles S.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 40, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/grl.50499

Response characteristics of different Butterworth low-pass digital filters
journal, March 1993


Earth-viewing satellite perspectives on the Chelyabinsk meteor event
journal, October 2013

  • Miller, S. D.; Straka, W. C.; Bachmeier, A. S.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, Issue 45
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1307965110

On the validity of the ionospheric pierce point (IPP) altitude of 350 km in the Indian equatorial and low-latitude sector
journal, January 2006


The 2013 Russian fireball largest ever detected by CTBTO infrasound sensors: METEOR LARGEST INFRASOUND RECORDED
journal, July 2013

  • Le Pichon, Alexis; Ceranna, Lars; Pilger, Christoph
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 40, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1002/grl.50619

Detection of ionospheric perturbations using a dense GPS array in Southern California: DETECTION OF IONOSPHERIC PERTURBATIONS USING A GPS ARRAY
journal, June 2003

  • Calais, E.; Haase, J. S.; Minster, J. B.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 30, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1029/2003GL017708

Tsunami source of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, Japan: Inversion analysis based on dispersive tsunami simulations: TSUNAMI SOURCE OF TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE
journal, April 2011

  • Saito, Tatsuhiko; Ito, Yoshihiro; Inazu, Daisuke
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 38, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049089

Global Positioning System detection and energy estimation of the ionospheric wave caused by the 13 July 2003 explosion of the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat
journal, January 2009

  • Dautermann, Thomas; Calais, Eric; Mattioli, Glen S.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 114, Issue B2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2008JB005722