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Title: A Measurement‐Model Fusion Approach for Improved Wet Deposition Maps and Trends

Abstract

Air quality models provide spatial fields of wet deposition (WD) and dry deposition that explicitly account for the transport and transformation of emissions from thousands of sources. However, many sources of uncertainty in the air quality model including errors in emissions and meteorological inputs (particularly precipitation) and incomplete descriptions of the chemical and physical processes governing deposition can lead to bias and error in the simulation of WD. We present an approach to bias correct Community Multiscale Air Quality model output over the contiguous United States using observation–based gridded precipitation data generated by the Parameter–elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model and WD observations at the National Atmospheric Deposition Program National Trends Network sites. A cross–validation analysis shows that the adjusted annual accumulated WD for NO3, NH4+, and SO42– from 2002 to 2012 has less bias and higher correlation with observed values than the base model output without adjustment. Temporal trends in observed WD are captured well by the adjusted model simulations across the entire contiguous United States. Consistent with previous trend analyses, WD NO3 and SO42– are shown to decrease during this period in the eastern half of the United States, particularly in the Northeast, while remaining nearly constant inmore » the West. Trends in WD of NH4+ are more spatially and temporally heterogeneous, with some positive trends in the Great Plains and Central Valley of CA and slightly negative trends in the south.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Research Triangle Park NC USA
  2. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Research Triangle Park NC USA
  3. Department of Environmental Sciences and EngineeringUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Chapel Hill NC USA
  4. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Research Triangle Park NC USA, Retired
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1505671
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1505672; OSTI ID: 1580714
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres Journal Volume: 124 Journal Issue: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union (AGU)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; atmospheric deposition; sulfur; nitrogen; critical loads; bias‐correct; long‐term trends

Citation Formats

Zhang, Yuqiang, Foley, Kristen M., Schwede, Donna B., Bash, Jesse O., Pinto, Joseph P., and Dennis, Robin L. A Measurement‐Model Fusion Approach for Improved Wet Deposition Maps and Trends. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1029/2018JD029051.
Zhang, Yuqiang, Foley, Kristen M., Schwede, Donna B., Bash, Jesse O., Pinto, Joseph P., & Dennis, Robin L. A Measurement‐Model Fusion Approach for Improved Wet Deposition Maps and Trends. United States. doi:10.1029/2018JD029051.
Zhang, Yuqiang, Foley, Kristen M., Schwede, Donna B., Bash, Jesse O., Pinto, Joseph P., and Dennis, Robin L. Mon . "A Measurement‐Model Fusion Approach for Improved Wet Deposition Maps and Trends". United States. doi:10.1029/2018JD029051.
@article{osti_1505671,
title = {A Measurement‐Model Fusion Approach for Improved Wet Deposition Maps and Trends},
author = {Zhang, Yuqiang and Foley, Kristen M. and Schwede, Donna B. and Bash, Jesse O. and Pinto, Joseph P. and Dennis, Robin L.},
abstractNote = {Air quality models provide spatial fields of wet deposition (WD) and dry deposition that explicitly account for the transport and transformation of emissions from thousands of sources. However, many sources of uncertainty in the air quality model including errors in emissions and meteorological inputs (particularly precipitation) and incomplete descriptions of the chemical and physical processes governing deposition can lead to bias and error in the simulation of WD. We present an approach to bias correct Community Multiscale Air Quality model output over the contiguous United States using observation–based gridded precipitation data generated by the Parameter–elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model and WD observations at the National Atmospheric Deposition Program National Trends Network sites. A cross–validation analysis shows that the adjusted annual accumulated WD for NO3–, NH4+, and SO42– from 2002 to 2012 has less bias and higher correlation with observed values than the base model output without adjustment. Temporal trends in observed WD are captured well by the adjusted model simulations across the entire contiguous United States. Consistent with previous trend analyses, WD NO3– and SO42– are shown to decrease during this period in the eastern half of the United States, particularly in the Northeast, while remaining nearly constant in the West. Trends in WD of NH4+ are more spatially and temporally heterogeneous, with some positive trends in the Great Plains and Central Valley of CA and slightly negative trends in the south.},
doi = {10.1029/2018JD029051},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres},
number = 7,
volume = 124,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {4}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1029/2018JD029051

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 6 works
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Works referenced in this record:

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journal, March 2017

  • Warner, J. X.; Dickerson, R. R.; Wei, Z.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 44, Issue 6
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Enhanced Wet Deposition Estimates using Modeled Precipitation Inputs
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Improving the behavior of the cumulus parameterization for tropical cyclone prediction: Convection trigger
journal, April 2009


Negative impact of nitrogen deposition on soil buffering capacity
journal, November 2008

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  • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo339

Global evaluation of ammonia bidirectional exchange and livestock diurnal variation schemes
journal, January 2015


Evaluation of atmospheric nitrogen deposition model performance in the context of U.S. critical load assessments
journal, February 2017


Nitrogen and sulfur deposition on regional and global scales: A multimodel evaluation: MULTIMODEL GLOBAL DEPOSITION
journal, October 2006

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Sensitivity of continental United States atmospheric budgets of oxidized and reduced nitrogen to dry deposition parametrizations
journal, July 2013

  • Dennis, Robin L.; Schwede, Donna B.; Bash, Jesse O.
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 368, Issue 1621
  • DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2013.0124

A new condensed toluene mechanism for Carbon Bond: CB05-TU☆
journal, December 2010


Space-Time Data fusion Under Error in Computer Model Output: An Application to Modeling Air Quality
journal, December 2011


Dynamic evaluation of regional air quality models: Assessing changes in O3 stemming from changes in emissions and meteorology
journal, June 2008


The impact of spatial correlation and incommensurability on model evaluation
journal, February 2009


Compilation and interpretation of photochemical model performance statistics published between 2006 and 2012
journal, December 2012


Emission inventory development and processing for the Seasonal Model for Regional Air Quality (SMRAQ) project
journal, April 2000

  • Houyoux, Marc R.; Vukovich, Jeffrey M.; Coats, Carlie J.
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Development and evaluation of an ammonia bidirectional flux parameterization for air quality models: AMMONIA BIDIRECTIONAL FLUX MODEL
journal, May 2013

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  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 118, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50262

Widespread reductions in haze across the United States from the early 1990s through 2011
journal, September 2014


Long-term trends in total inorganic nitrogen and sulfur deposition in the US from 1990 to 2010
journal, January 2018

  • Zhang, Yuqiang; Mathur, Rohit; Bash, Jesse O.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 18, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-18-9091-2018

A bivariate space–time downscaler under space and time misalignment
journal, December 2010

  • Berrocal, Veronica J.; Gelfand, Alan E.; Holland, David M.
  • The Annals of Applied Statistics, Vol. 4, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1214/10-AOAS351

Estimates of exceedances of critical loads for acidifying deposition in Alberta and Saskatchewan
journal, January 2018

  • Makar, Paul A.; Akingunola, Ayodeji; Aherne, Julian
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 18, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-18-9897-2018

Evaluation of dust and trace metal estimates from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model version 5.0
journal, January 2013

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  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 6, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-6-883-2013

Evaluation of a regional air-quality model with bidirectional NH 3 exchange coupled to an agroecosystem model
journal, January 2013


Photochemical Modeling of the Ozark Isoprene Volcano: MEGAN, BEIS, and Their Impacts on Air Quality Predictions
journal, May 2011

  • Carlton, Annmarie G.; Baker, Kirk R.
  • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 45, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1021/es200050x

Performance Assessment of New Land Surface and Planetary Boundary Layer Physics in the WRF-ARW
journal, April 2010

  • Gilliam, Robert C.; Pleim, Jonathan E.
  • Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Vol. 49, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1175/2009JAMC2126.1

Fusing point and areal level space–time data with application to wet deposition
journal, January 2010

  • Sahu, Sujit K.; Gelfand, Alan E.; Holland, David M.
  • Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series C (Applied Statistics), Vol. 59, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9876.2009.00685.x

Increasing importance of deposition of reduced nitrogen in the United States
journal, May 2016

  • Li, Yi; Schichtel, Bret A.; Walker, John T.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1525736113

Integrated reactive nitrogen budgets and future trends in China
journal, June 2015

  • Gu, Baojing; Ju, Xiaotang; Chang, Jie
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, Issue 28
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1510211112

Estimates of the Regression Coefficient Based on Kendall's Tau
journal, December 1968


Atmospheric nitrogen deposition to China: A model analysis on nitrogen budget and critical load exceedance
journal, March 2017


Physiographically sensitive mapping of climatological temperature and precipitation across the conterminous United States
journal, December 2008

  • Daly, Christopher; Halbleib, Michael; Smith, Joseph I.
  • International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 28, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1002/joc.1688

A database and tool for boundary conditions for regional air quality modeling: description and evaluation
journal, January 2014

  • Henderson, B. H.; Akhtar, F.; Pye, H. O. T.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-7-339-2014

Atmospheric deposition maps for the Rocky Mountains
journal, November 2003


Improved mapping of National Atmospheric Deposition Program wet-deposition in complex terrain using PRISM-gridded data sets
journal, April 2011

  • Latysh, Natalie E.; Wetherbee, Gregory Alan
  • Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 184, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10661-011-2009-7

On the change of support problem for spatio-temporal data
journal, March 2001


The Meteorology-Chemistry Interface Processor (MCIP) for the CMAQ modeling system: updates through MCIPv3.4.1
journal, January 2010


Changes in wet nitrogen deposition in the United States between 1985 and 2012
journal, September 2014


Atmospheric nitrogen deposition has caused nitrogen enrichment and eutrophication of lakes in the northern hemisphere
journal, April 2006


Nitrogen Pollution in the Northeastern United States: Sources, Effects, and Management Options
journal, January 2003


Statistical analysis of errors in estimating wet deposition using five surface estimation algorithms
journal, January 1991


Comparison of four methods for spatial interpolation of estimated atmospheric nitrogen deposition in South China
journal, November 2016

  • Qu, Linglu; Xiao, Huayun; Zheng, Nengjian
  • Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Vol. 24, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-7995-0

A novel hybrid approach for estimating total deposition in the United States
journal, August 2014


Multivariable geostatistics in S: the gstat package
journal, August 2004


A multi-resolution assessment of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model v4.7 wet deposition estimates for 2002–2006
journal, January 2011

  • Appel, K. W.; Foley, K. M.; Bash, J. O.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 4, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-4-357-2011

Present and future nitrogen deposition to national parks in the United States: critical load exceedances
journal, January 2013

  • Ellis, R. A.; Jacob, D. J.; Sulprizio, M. P.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 13, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-13-9083-2013

A Spatio-Temporal Downscaler for Output From Numerical Models
journal, January 2010

  • Berrocal, Veronica J.; Gelfand, Alan E.; Holland, David M.
  • Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics, Vol. 15, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/s13253-009-0004-z

Nitrogen deposition to the United States: distribution, sources, and processes
journal, January 2012

  • Zhang, L.; Jacob, D. J.; Knipping, E. M.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 12, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-12-4539-2012

Improving the horizontal transport in the lower troposphere with four dimensional data assimilation
journal, June 2012


Air quality and atmospheric deposition in the eastern US: 20 years of change
journal, January 2015

  • Sickles II, J. E.; Shadwick, D. S.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 15, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-15-173-2015

Impact of lightning-NO on eastern United States photochemistry during the summer of 2006 as determined using the CMAQ model
journal, January 2012

  • Allen, D. J.; Pickering, K. E.; Pinder, R. W.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 12, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-12-1737-2012

Changes in air quality and atmospheric deposition in the eastern United States: 1990–2004
journal, January 2007

  • Sickles, Joseph E.; Shadwick, Douglas S.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 112, Issue D17
  • DOI: 10.1029/2006JD007843

Multi-pollutant surface objective analyses and mapping of air quality health index over North America
journal, January 2016

  • Robichaud, Alain; Ménard, Richard; Zaïtseva, Yulia
  • Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health, Vol. 9, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11869-015-0385-9

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Increased atmospheric ammonia over the world's major agricultural areas detected from space: Global Atmospheric NH
    journal, March 2017

    • Warner, J. X.; Dickerson, R. R.; Wei, Z.
    • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 44, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1002/2016gl072305

    Development and evaluation of an ammonia bidirectional flux parameterization for air quality models: AMMONIA BIDIRECTIONAL FLUX MODEL
    journal, May 2013

    • Pleim, Jonathan E.; Bash, Jesse O.; Walker, John T.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 118, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50262

    Physiographically sensitive mapping of climatological temperature and precipitation across the conterminous United States
    journal, December 2008

    • Daly, Christopher; Halbleib, Michael; Smith, Joseph I.
    • International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 28, Issue 15
    • DOI: 10.1002/joc.1688

    Improved mapping of National Atmospheric Deposition Program wet-deposition in complex terrain using PRISM-gridded data sets
    journal, April 2011

    • Latysh, Natalie E.; Wetherbee, Gregory Alan
    • Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 184, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1007/s10661-011-2009-7

    Comparison of four methods for spatial interpolation of estimated atmospheric nitrogen deposition in South China
    journal, November 2016

    • Qu, Linglu; Xiao, Huayun; Zheng, Nengjian
    • Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Vol. 24, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-7995-0

    Multi-pollutant surface objective analyses and mapping of air quality health index over North America
    journal, January 2016

    • Robichaud, Alain; Ménard, Richard; Zaïtseva, Yulia
    • Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health, Vol. 9, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1007/s11869-015-0385-9

    A Spatio-Temporal Downscaler for Output From Numerical Models
    journal, January 2010

    • Berrocal, Veronica J.; Gelfand, Alan E.; Holland, David M.
    • Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics, Vol. 15, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1007/s13253-009-0004-z

    Statistical analysis of errors in estimating wet deposition using five surface estimation algorithms
    journal, January 1991


    Atmospheric deposition maps for the Rocky Mountains
    journal, November 2003


    Dynamic evaluation of regional air quality models: Assessing changes in O3 stemming from changes in emissions and meteorology
    journal, June 2008


    The impact of spatial correlation and incommensurability on model evaluation
    journal, February 2009


    A new condensed toluene mechanism for Carbon Bond: CB05-TU☆
    journal, December 2010


    Improving the horizontal transport in the lower troposphere with four dimensional data assimilation
    journal, June 2012


    Compilation and interpretation of photochemical model performance statistics published between 2006 and 2012
    journal, December 2012


    A novel hybrid approach for estimating total deposition in the United States
    journal, August 2014


    Widespread reductions in haze across the United States from the early 1990s through 2011
    journal, September 2014


    Evaluation of atmospheric nitrogen deposition model performance in the context of U.S. critical load assessments
    journal, February 2017


    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition to China: A model analysis on nitrogen budget and critical load exceedance
    journal, March 2017


    Improving the behavior of the cumulus parameterization for tropical cyclone prediction: Convection trigger
    journal, April 2009


    Multivariable geostatistics in S: the gstat package
    journal, August 2004


    Photochemical Modeling of the Ozark Isoprene Volcano: MEGAN, BEIS, and Their Impacts on Air Quality Predictions
    journal, May 2011

    • Carlton, Annmarie G.; Baker, Kirk R.
    • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 45, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1021/es200050x

    Enhanced Wet Deposition Estimates using Modeled Precipitation Inputs
    journal, January 2004


    Emission inventory development and processing for the Seasonal Model for Regional Air Quality (SMRAQ) project
    journal, April 2000

    • Houyoux, Marc R.; Vukovich, Jeffrey M.; Coats, Carlie J.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 105, Issue D7
    • DOI: 10.1029/1999jd900975

    Nitrogen and sulfur deposition on regional and global scales: A multimodel evaluation: MULTIMODEL GLOBAL DEPOSITION
    journal, October 2006

    • Dentener, F.; Drevet, J.; Lamarque, J. F.
    • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 20, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1029/2005gb002672

    Changes in air quality and atmospheric deposition in the eastern United States: 1990–2004
    journal, January 2007

    • Sickles, Joseph E.; Shadwick, Douglas S.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 112, Issue D17
    • DOI: 10.1029/2006jd007843

    Negative impact of nitrogen deposition on soil buffering capacity
    journal, November 2008

    • Bowman, William D.; Cleveland, Cory C.; Halada, Ĺuboš
    • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 1, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo339

    Integrated reactive nitrogen budgets and future trends in China
    journal, June 2015

    • Gu, Baojing; Ju, Xiaotang; Chang, Jie
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, Issue 28
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1510211112

    Increasing importance of deposition of reduced nitrogen in the United States
    journal, May 2016

    • Li, Yi; Schichtel, Bret A.; Walker, John T.
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, Issue 21
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1525736113

    Estimates of the Regression Coefficient Based on Kendall's Tau
    journal, December 1968


    Changes in wet nitrogen deposition in the United States between 1985 and 2012
    journal, September 2014


    On the change of support problem for spatio-temporal data
    journal, March 2001


    Sensitivity of continental United States atmospheric budgets of oxidized and reduced nitrogen to dry deposition parametrizations
    journal, July 2013

    • Dennis, Robin L.; Schwede, Donna B.; Bash, Jesse O.
    • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 368, Issue 1621
    • DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2013.0124

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition has caused nitrogen enrichment and eutrophication of lakes in the northern hemisphere
    journal, April 2006


    Fusing point and areal level space–time data with application to wet deposition
    journal, January 2010

    • Sahu, Sujit K.; Gelfand, Alan E.; Holland, David M.
    • Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series C (Applied Statistics), Vol. 59, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9876.2009.00685.x

    Space-Time Data fusion Under Error in Computer Model Output: An Application to Modeling Air Quality
    journal, December 2011


    Performance Assessment of New Land Surface and Planetary Boundary Layer Physics in the WRF-ARW
    journal, April 2010

    • Gilliam, Robert C.; Pleim, Jonathan E.
    • Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Vol. 49, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1175/2009jamc2126.1

    A bivariate space–time downscaler under space and time misalignment
    journal, December 2010

    • Berrocal, Veronica J.; Gelfand, Alan E.; Holland, David M.
    • The Annals of Applied Statistics, Vol. 4, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1214/10-aoas351

    Nitrogen Pollution in the Northeastern United States: Sources, Effects, and Management Options
    journal, January 2003


    Impact of lightning-NO on eastern United States photochemistry during the summer of 2006 as determined using the CMAQ model
    journal, January 2012

    • Allen, D. J.; Pickering, K. E.; Pinder, R. W.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 12, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-12-1737-2012

    Nitrogen deposition to the United States: distribution, sources, and processes
    journal, January 2012

    • Zhang, L.; Jacob, D. J.; Knipping, E. M.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 12, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-12-4539-2012

    Present and future nitrogen deposition to national parks in the United States: critical load exceedances
    journal, January 2013

    • Ellis, R. A.; Jacob, D. J.; Sulprizio, M. P.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 13, Issue 17
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-13-9083-2013

    Global evaluation of ammonia bidirectional exchange and livestock diurnal variation schemes
    journal, January 2015


    Air quality and atmospheric deposition in the eastern US: 20 years of change
    journal, January 2015

    • Sickles II, J. E.; Shadwick, D. S.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 15, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-15-173-2015

    Long-term trends in total inorganic nitrogen and sulfur deposition in the US from 1990 to 2010
    journal, January 2018

    • Zhang, Yuqiang; Mathur, Rohit; Bash, Jesse O.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 18, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-18-9091-2018

    Estimates of exceedances of critical loads for acidifying deposition in Alberta and Saskatchewan
    journal, January 2018

    • Makar, Paul A.; Akingunola, Ayodeji; Aherne, Julian
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 18, Issue 13
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-18-9897-2018

    Evaluation of a regional air-quality model with bidirectional NH 3 exchange coupled to an agroecosystem model
    journal, January 2013


    The Meteorology-Chemistry Interface Processor (MCIP) for the CMAQ modeling system: updates through MCIPv3.4.1
    journal, January 2010


    A multi-resolution assessment of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model v4.7 wet deposition estimates for 2002–2006
    journal, January 2011

    • Appel, K. W.; Foley, K. M.; Bash, J. O.
    • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 4, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-4-357-2011

    Evaluation of dust and trace metal estimates from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model version 5.0
    journal, January 2013

    • Appel, K. W.; Pouliot, G. A.; Simon, H.
    • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 6, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-6-883-2013

    A database and tool for boundary conditions for regional air quality modeling: description and evaluation
    journal, January 2014

    • Henderson, B. H.; Akhtar, F.; Pye, H. O. T.
    • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 7, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-7-339-2014