skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Magnetic dichroism in the Kondo insulator SmB 6

Abstract

Samarium hexaboride ($${\mathrm{SmB}}_{6}$$) is a purported topological Kondo insulator, with theory predicting that the experimentally observed metallic surface states manifest from a topologically nontrivial insulating bulk band structure. The insulating bulk itself is driven by strong correlations, and both bulk and surface are known to host compelling magnetic and electronic phenomena. We employed here x-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the Sm $${M}_{4,5}$$ edges to probe the surface and bulk magnetic properties of $${\mathrm{Sm}}^{2+}$$ and $${\mathrm{Sm}}^{3+}$$ within $${\mathrm{SmB}}_{6}$$. We observed an unexpected antialignment to the applied field of the $${\mathrm{Sm}}^{3+}$$ magnetic dipole moment below $T=75$ K and of the total orbital moment of samarium below 30 K. The total bulk magnetization at 2 K is, however, positive and driven by $${\mathrm{Sm}}^{2+}$$ Van Vleck susceptibility as well as 1% paramagnetic impurities with $${{\mu}}_{\mathrm{eff}}=5.2(1){{\mu}}_{\mathrm{B}}$$. This indicates the diamagneticlike $${\mathrm{Sm}}^{3+}$$ magnetism is only a portion of the net magnetization, partially offsetting the response of paramagnetic impurities known within the bulk.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8]
  1. Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials. Dept. of Physics; Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Inst. for Quantum Matter. Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  2. Inst. for Basic Science (IBS), Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Center for Correlated Electron Systems; Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Neutron Scattering Division
  3. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source
  4. Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source
  5. Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Inst. for Quantum Matter. Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  6. Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Inst. for Quantum Matter. Dept. of Physics and Astronomy. Dept. of Chemistry
  7. Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Inst. for Quantum Matter. Dept. of Physics and Astronomy. Dept. of Chemistry. Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
  8. Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Inst. for Quantum Matter. Dept. of Physics and Astronomy. Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Center for Neutron Research
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1505147
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1490145
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357; FG02-08ER46544; FG02-03ER46097
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review B
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 99; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9950
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; Kondo insulators; topological insulators; X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

Citation Formats

Fuhrman, W. T., Leiner, J. C., Freeland, J. W., van Veenendaal, M., Koohpayeh, S. M., Phelan, W. Adam, McQueen, T. M., and Broholm, C. Magnetic dichroism in the Kondo insulator SmB6. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.99.020401.
Fuhrman, W. T., Leiner, J. C., Freeland, J. W., van Veenendaal, M., Koohpayeh, S. M., Phelan, W. Adam, McQueen, T. M., & Broholm, C. Magnetic dichroism in the Kondo insulator SmB6. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.99.020401.
Fuhrman, W. T., Leiner, J. C., Freeland, J. W., van Veenendaal, M., Koohpayeh, S. M., Phelan, W. Adam, McQueen, T. M., and Broholm, C. Wed . "Magnetic dichroism in the Kondo insulator SmB6". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.99.020401. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1505147.
@article{osti_1505147,
title = {Magnetic dichroism in the Kondo insulator SmB6},
author = {Fuhrman, W. T. and Leiner, J. C. and Freeland, J. W. and van Veenendaal, M. and Koohpayeh, S. M. and Phelan, W. Adam and McQueen, T. M. and Broholm, C.},
abstractNote = {Samarium hexaboride (${\mathrm{SmB}}_{6}$) is a purported topological Kondo insulator, with theory predicting that the experimentally observed metallic surface states manifest from a topologically nontrivial insulating bulk band structure. The insulating bulk itself is driven by strong correlations, and both bulk and surface are known to host compelling magnetic and electronic phenomena. We employed here x-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the Sm ${M}_{4,5}$ edges to probe the surface and bulk magnetic properties of ${\mathrm{Sm}}^{2+}$ and ${\mathrm{Sm}}^{3+}$ within ${\mathrm{SmB}}_{6}$. We observed an unexpected antialignment to the applied field of the ${\mathrm{Sm}}^{3+}$ magnetic dipole moment below $T=75$ K and of the total orbital moment of samarium below 30 K. The total bulk magnetization at 2 K is, however, positive and driven by ${\mathrm{Sm}}^{2+}$ Van Vleck susceptibility as well as 1% paramagnetic impurities with ${{\mu}}_{\mathrm{eff}}=5.2(1){{\mu}}_{\mathrm{B}}$. This indicates the diamagneticlike ${\mathrm{Sm}}^{3+}$ magnetism is only a portion of the net magnetization, partially offsetting the response of paramagnetic impurities known within the bulk.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.99.020401},
journal = {Physical Review B},
number = 2,
volume = 99,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {1}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 2 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Surface-dominated conduction up to 240 K in the Kondo insulator SmB6 under strain
journal, April 2017

  • Stern, A.; Dzero, M.; Galitski, V. M.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 16, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat4888

Freezing out of a low-energy bulk spin exciton in SmB6
journal, August 2018


Topological Kondo Insulators
journal, March 2010


On the Chemistry and Physical Properties of Flux and Floating Zone Grown SmB6 Single Crystals
journal, February 2016

  • Phelan, W. A.; Koohpayeh, S. M.; Cottingham, P.
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep20860

Field-dependent heat transport in the Kondo insulator SmB 6 : Phonons scattered by magnetic impurities
journal, June 2018


Temperature dependence of Sm valence in SmB 6 studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy
journal, June 2009


Screened moments and extrinsic in-gap states in samarium hexaboride
journal, April 2018


Quantum Oscillation from In-Gap States and a Non-Hermitian Landau Level Problem
journal, July 2018


Kondo Breakdown in Topological Kondo Insulators
journal, April 2015


Highly Asymmetric Nodal Semimetal in Bulk SmB 6
journal, July 2018


Theory of Fluorescence Yield Spectra of Rare Earth Oxides at 3 d Threshold Region
journal, January 1998

  • Nakazawa, Makoto; Ogasawara, Haruhiko; Kotani, Akio
  • Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, Vol. 67, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1143/JPSJ.67.323

Topological surface state in the Kondo insulator samarium hexaboride
journal, March 2014

  • Kim, D. J.; Xia, J.; Fisk, Z.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 13, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat3913

Low-temperature magnetic fluctuations in the Kondo insulator SmB 6
journal, April 2014


Cubic Topological Kondo Insulators
journal, November 2013


Surface Hall Effect and Nonlocal Transport in SmB6: Evidence for Surface Conduction
journal, November 2013

  • Kim, D. J.; Thomas, S.; Grant, T.
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 3, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep03150

Calculations of magnetic x-ray dichroism in the 3 d absorption spectra of rare-earth compounds
journal, February 1988


Valence Fluctuating State in SmB 6
journal, May 1979


Bulk and surface electronic properties of SmB 6 : A hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study
journal, October 2017


Precise Lattice Parameters of Selected Rare Earth Tetra- and Hexa-borides 1
journal, October 1959

  • Eick, Harry A.; Gilles, Paul W.
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 81, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja01528a005

Bulk Rotational Symmetry Breaking in Kondo Insulator SmB 6
journal, September 2017


Unconventional Fermi surface in an insulating state
journal, July 2015


Magnetotransport measurements of the surface states of samarium hexaboride using Corbino structures
journal, September 2015


X-ray magnetic circular dichroism—A versatile tool to study magnetism
journal, October 2014


X-ray circular dichroism and local magnetic fields
journal, February 1993


Correlated Topological Insulators with Mixed Valence
journal, February 2013


Topological Insulators in Three Dimensions
journal, March 2007


Chemical and valence reconstruction at the surface of SmB 6 revealed by means of resonant soft x-ray reflectometry
journal, May 2018


Correlation between Bulk Thermodynamic Measurements and the Low-Temperature-Resistance Plateau in SmB 6
journal, July 2014


3d x-ray-absorption lines and the 3 d 9 4 f n + 1 multiplets of the lanthanides
journal, October 1985


Anomalous three-dimensional bulk ac conduction within the Kondo gap of SmB 6 single crystals
journal, October 2016


Two-dimensional heavy fermions on the strongly correlated boundaries of Kondo topological insulators
journal, December 2014


Low-temperature surface conduction in the Kondo insulator SmB 6
journal, November 2013


Xclaim: A graphical interface for the calculation of core-hole spectroscopies
journal, July 2015

  • Fernández-Rodríguez, Javier; Toby, Brian; van Veenendaal, Michel
  • Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, Vol. 202
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.elspec.2015.03.010

Samarium hexaboride is a trivial surface conductor
journal, February 2018


Breakdown of the Kondo insulating state in SmB 6 by introducing Sm vacancies
journal, August 2016


Surface- and pressure-induced bulk Kondo breakdown in SmB 6
journal, June 2018


SmB 6 Cluster Anion: Covalency Involving f Orbitals
journal, February 2017

  • Robinson, Paul J.; Zhang, Xinxing; McQueen, Tyrel
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 121, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpca.7b00247

Hybridization, Inter-Ion Correlation, and Surface States in the Kondo Insulator SmB 6
journal, February 2013


Interaction Driven Subgap Spin Exciton in the Kondo Insulator SmB 6
journal, January 2015


Isosbestic points in doped Sm B 6 as features of universality and property tuning
journal, September 2017


Observation of possible topological in-gap surface states in the Kondo insulator SmB6 by photoemission
journal, December 2013

  • Jiang, J.; Li, S.; Zhang, T.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 4, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms4010

Skyrme Insulators: Insulators at the Brink of Superconductivity
journal, August 2017


Fermi surface in the absence of a Fermi liquid in the Kondo insulator SmB6
journal, October 2017

  • Hartstein, M.; Toews, W. H.; Hsu, Y. -T.
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 14, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys4295