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Title: Localization in Fractonic Random Circuits

Abstract

We study the spreading of initially local operators under unitary time evolution in a one-dimensional random quantum circuit model that is constrained to conserve a U ( 1 ) charge and also the dipole moment of this charge. These constraints are motivated by the quantum dynamics of fracton phases. We discover that the charge remains localized at its initial position, providing a crisp example of a nonergodic dynamical phase of random circuit dynamics. This localization can be understood as a consequence of the return properties of low-dimensional random walks, through a mechanism reminiscent of weak localization, but insensitive to dephasing. The charge dynamics is well described by a system of coupled hydrodynamic equations, which makes several nontrivial predictions that are all in good agreement with numerics in one dimension. Importantly, these equations also predict localization in two-dimensional fractonic random circuits. We further find that the immobile fractonic charge emits nonconserved operators, whose spreading is governed by exponents that are distinct from those observed in nonfractonic circuits. These nonstandard exponents are also explained by our coupled hydrodynamic equations. Where entanglement properties are concerned, we find that fractonic operators exhibit a short time linear growth of observable entanglement with saturation to an area law, as well as a subthermal volume law for operator entanglement. The entanglement spectrum is found to follow semi-Poisson statistics, similar to eigenstates of many-body localized systems. The nonergodic phenomenology is found to persist to initial conditions containing nonzero density of dipolar or fractonic charge, including states near the sector of maximal charge. Our work implies that low-dimensional fracton systems should preserve forever a memory of their initial conditions in local observables under noisy quantum dynamics, thereby constituting ideal memories. It also implies that one- and two-dimensional fracton systems should realize true many-body localization (MBL) under Hamiltonian dynamics, even in the absence of disorder, with the obstructions to MBL in translation-invariant systems and in spatial dimensions greater than one being evaded by the nature of the mechanism responsible for localization. We also suggest a possible route to new nonergodic phases in high dimensions.

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES); US Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR); National Science Foundation (NSF); Foundational Questions Institute; Silicon Valley Community Foundation; Alfred P. Sloan Foundation
OSTI Identifier:
1504810
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1612179
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0014415; FA9550-17-1-0183; 1734006; FQXi-RFP-1617
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review. X
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Physical Review. X Journal Volume: 9 Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2160-3308
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; Physics; Condensed Matter Physics; Quantum Physics

Citation Formats

Pai, Shriya, Pretko, Michael, and Nandkishore, Rahul M. Localization in Fractonic Random Circuits. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevX.9.021003.
Pai, Shriya, Pretko, Michael, & Nandkishore, Rahul M. Localization in Fractonic Random Circuits. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevX.9.021003.
Pai, Shriya, Pretko, Michael, and Nandkishore, Rahul M. Wed . "Localization in Fractonic Random Circuits". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevX.9.021003.
@article{osti_1504810,
title = {Localization in Fractonic Random Circuits},
author = {Pai, Shriya and Pretko, Michael and Nandkishore, Rahul M.},
abstractNote = {We study the spreading of initially local operators under unitary time evolution in a one-dimensional random quantum circuit model that is constrained to conserve a U(1) charge and also the dipole moment of this charge. These constraints are motivated by the quantum dynamics of fracton phases. We discover that the charge remains localized at its initial position, providing a crisp example of a nonergodic dynamical phase of random circuit dynamics. This localization can be understood as a consequence of the return properties of low-dimensional random walks, through a mechanism reminiscent of weak localization, but insensitive to dephasing. The charge dynamics is well described by a system of coupled hydrodynamic equations, which makes several nontrivial predictions that are all in good agreement with numerics in one dimension. Importantly, these equations also predict localization in two-dimensional fractonic random circuits. We further find that the immobile fractonic charge emits nonconserved operators, whose spreading is governed by exponents that are distinct from those observed in nonfractonic circuits. These nonstandard exponents are also explained by our coupled hydrodynamic equations. Where entanglement properties are concerned, we find that fractonic operators exhibit a short time linear growth of observable entanglement with saturation to an area law, as well as a subthermal volume law for operator entanglement. The entanglement spectrum is found to follow semi-Poisson statistics, similar to eigenstates of many-body localized systems. The nonergodic phenomenology is found to persist to initial conditions containing nonzero density of dipolar or fractonic charge, including states near the sector of maximal charge. Our work implies that low-dimensional fracton systems should preserve forever a memory of their initial conditions in local observables under noisy quantum dynamics, thereby constituting ideal memories. It also implies that one- and two-dimensional fracton systems should realize true many-body localization (MBL) under Hamiltonian dynamics, even in the absence of disorder, with the obstructions to MBL in translation-invariant systems and in spatial dimensions greater than one being evaded by the nature of the mechanism responsible for localization. We also suggest a possible route to new nonergodic phases in high dimensions.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevX.9.021003},
journal = {Physical Review. X},
number = 2,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {4}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevX.9.021003

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Cited by: 21 works
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