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Title: Impacts of droughts and extreme-temperature events on gross primary production and ecosystem respiration: a systematic assessment across ecosystems and climate zones

Extreme climatic events, such as droughts and heat stress, induce anomalies in ecosystem–atmosphere CO 2 fluxes, such as gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (R eco), and, hence, can change the net ecosystem carbon balance. However, despite our increasing understanding of the underlying mechanisms, the magnitudes of the impacts of different types of extremes on GPP and R eco within and between ecosystems remain poorly predicted. Here we aim to identify the major factors controlling the amplitude of extreme-event impacts on GPP, R eco, and the resulting net ecosystem production (NEP). We focus on the impacts of heat and drought and their combination. We identified hydrometeorological extreme events in consistently downscaled water availability and temperature measurements over a 30-year time period. We then used FLUXNET eddy covariance flux measurements to estimate the CO 2 flux anomalies during these extreme events across dominant vegetation types and climate zones. Overall, our results indicate that short-term heat extremes increased respiration more strongly than they downregulated GPP, resulting in a moderate reduction in the ecosystem's carbon sink potential. In the absence of heat stress, droughts tended to have smaller and similarly dampening effects on both GPP and R eco and, hence, often resultedmore » in neutral NEP responses. The combination of drought and heat typically led to a strong decrease in GPP, whereas heat and drought impacts on respiration partially offset each other. Taken together, compound heat and drought events led to the strongest C sink reduction compared to any single-factor extreme. A key insight of this paper, however, is that duration matters most: for heat stress during droughts, the magnitude of impacts systematically increased with duration, whereas under heat stress without drought, the response of R eco over time turned from an initial increase to a downregulation after about 2 weeks. This confirms earlier theories that not only the magnitude but also the duration of an extreme event determines its impact. Our study corroborates the results of several local site-level case studies but as a novelty generalizes these findings on the global scale. Specifically, we find that the different response functions of the two antipodal land–atmosphere fluxes GPP and R eco can also result in increasing NEP during certain extreme conditions. Apparently counterintuitive findings of this kind bear great potential for scrutinizing the mechanisms implemented in state-of-the-art terrestrial biosphere models and provide a benchmark for future model development and testing.« less
Authors:
 [1] ; ORCiD logo [2] ; ORCiD logo [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ; ORCiD logo [6] ;  [7] ; ORCiD logo [8] ;  [9] ;  [10] ;  [11] ; ORCiD logo [12] ;  [13] ; ORCiD logo [14] ; ORCiD logo [15] ;  [16] ;  [17] ; ORCiD logo [18] ;  [7] ; ORCiD logo [19] more »; ORCiD logo [20] ;  [21] ;  [22] ; ORCiD logo [23] ;  [24] ;  [25] ;  [24] ;  [26] ;  [27] ; ORCiD logo [28] ; ORCiD logo [5] « less
  1. Max Planck Society, Jena (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for Biogeochemistry; Univ. of Gottingen, Gottingen (Germany)
  2. Max Planck Society, Jena (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for Biogeochemistry; Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (ETH), Zurich (Switzerland)
  3. Technical Univ.of Munich (TUM), Freising (Germany)
  4. Max Planck Society, Jena (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for Biogeochemistry; Norwegian Inst. of Bioeconomy Research, Høgskoleveien (Norway)
  5. Max Planck Society, Jena (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for Biogeochemistry; German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv), Leipzig (Germany)
  6. Univ. of Gottingen, Gottingen (Germany)
  7. Max Planck Society, Jena (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for Biogeochemistry
  8. Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)
  9. McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)
  10. Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (ETH), Zurich (Switzerland)
  11. Joint Research Center (JRC), Ispra (Italy). Inst. for Environment and Sustainability
  12. Edmund Mach Foundation, San Michele all'Adige (Italy)
  13. Univ. College Cork, Cork (Ireland)
  14. Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)
  15. National Research Council (CNR), Ercolano, Napoli (Italy). Inst. for Mediterranean Forest and Agricultural Systems
  16. Laval Univ., Quebec (Canada)
  17. Queen's Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)
  18. Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (ETH), Zurich (Switzerland); International Livestock Research Inst.(ILRI), Nairobi (Kenya)
  19. Free Univ. of Bozen-Bolzano, Bolzano (Italy)
  20. San Diego State Univ., San Diego, CA (United States); Univ. of Exeter, Exeter (United Kingdom)
  21. Czech Academy of Sciences (CAS), Prague (Czech Republic). Global Change Research Inst.
  22. Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umea (Sweden)
  23. Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive (CEFE), Montpellier (France)
  24. Inst. of Biometeorology, Florence (Italy)
  25. Southwest Watershed Research Center, Tucson, AZ (United States)
  26. Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)
  27. Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Moscow (Russian Federation)
  28. Univ. Innsbruck, Innsbruck (Austria)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
FG02-04ER63917; FG02-04ER63911
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Biogeosciences (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Biogeosciences (Online); Journal Volume: 15; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 1726-4189
Publisher:
European Geosciences Union
Research Org:
Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
OSTI Identifier:
1503315

von Buttlar, Jannis, Zscheischler, Jakob, Rammig, Anja, Sippel, Sebastian, Reichstein, Markus, Knohl, Alexander, Jung, Martin, Menzer, Olaf, Arain, M. Altaf, Buchmann, Nina, Cescatti, Alessandro, Gianelle, Damiano, Kiely, Gerard, Law, Beverly E., Magliulo, Vincenzo, Margolis, Hank, McCaughey, Harry, Merbold, Lutz, Migliavacca, Mirco, Montagnani, Leonardo, Oechel, Walter, Pavelka, Marian, Peichl, Matthias, Rambal, Serge, Raschi, Antonio, Scott, Russell L., Vaccari, Francesco P., van Gorsel, Eva, Varlagin, Andrej, Wohlfahrt, Georg, and Mahecha, Miguel D.. Impacts of droughts and extreme-temperature events on gross primary production and ecosystem respiration: a systematic assessment across ecosystems and climate zones. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.5194/bg-15-1293-2018.
von Buttlar, Jannis, Zscheischler, Jakob, Rammig, Anja, Sippel, Sebastian, Reichstein, Markus, Knohl, Alexander, Jung, Martin, Menzer, Olaf, Arain, M. Altaf, Buchmann, Nina, Cescatti, Alessandro, Gianelle, Damiano, Kiely, Gerard, Law, Beverly E., Magliulo, Vincenzo, Margolis, Hank, McCaughey, Harry, Merbold, Lutz, Migliavacca, Mirco, Montagnani, Leonardo, Oechel, Walter, Pavelka, Marian, Peichl, Matthias, Rambal, Serge, Raschi, Antonio, Scott, Russell L., Vaccari, Francesco P., van Gorsel, Eva, Varlagin, Andrej, Wohlfahrt, Georg, & Mahecha, Miguel D.. Impacts of droughts and extreme-temperature events on gross primary production and ecosystem respiration: a systematic assessment across ecosystems and climate zones. United States. doi:10.5194/bg-15-1293-2018.
von Buttlar, Jannis, Zscheischler, Jakob, Rammig, Anja, Sippel, Sebastian, Reichstein, Markus, Knohl, Alexander, Jung, Martin, Menzer, Olaf, Arain, M. Altaf, Buchmann, Nina, Cescatti, Alessandro, Gianelle, Damiano, Kiely, Gerard, Law, Beverly E., Magliulo, Vincenzo, Margolis, Hank, McCaughey, Harry, Merbold, Lutz, Migliavacca, Mirco, Montagnani, Leonardo, Oechel, Walter, Pavelka, Marian, Peichl, Matthias, Rambal, Serge, Raschi, Antonio, Scott, Russell L., Vaccari, Francesco P., van Gorsel, Eva, Varlagin, Andrej, Wohlfahrt, Georg, and Mahecha, Miguel D.. 2018. "Impacts of droughts and extreme-temperature events on gross primary production and ecosystem respiration: a systematic assessment across ecosystems and climate zones". United States. doi:10.5194/bg-15-1293-2018. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1503315.
@article{osti_1503315,
title = {Impacts of droughts and extreme-temperature events on gross primary production and ecosystem respiration: a systematic assessment across ecosystems and climate zones},
author = {von Buttlar, Jannis and Zscheischler, Jakob and Rammig, Anja and Sippel, Sebastian and Reichstein, Markus and Knohl, Alexander and Jung, Martin and Menzer, Olaf and Arain, M. Altaf and Buchmann, Nina and Cescatti, Alessandro and Gianelle, Damiano and Kiely, Gerard and Law, Beverly E. and Magliulo, Vincenzo and Margolis, Hank and McCaughey, Harry and Merbold, Lutz and Migliavacca, Mirco and Montagnani, Leonardo and Oechel, Walter and Pavelka, Marian and Peichl, Matthias and Rambal, Serge and Raschi, Antonio and Scott, Russell L. and Vaccari, Francesco P. and van Gorsel, Eva and Varlagin, Andrej and Wohlfahrt, Georg and Mahecha, Miguel D.},
abstractNote = {Extreme climatic events, such as droughts and heat stress, induce anomalies in ecosystem–atmosphere CO2 fluxes, such as gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco), and, hence, can change the net ecosystem carbon balance. However, despite our increasing understanding of the underlying mechanisms, the magnitudes of the impacts of different types of extremes on GPP and Reco within and between ecosystems remain poorly predicted. Here we aim to identify the major factors controlling the amplitude of extreme-event impacts on GPP, Reco, and the resulting net ecosystem production (NEP). We focus on the impacts of heat and drought and their combination. We identified hydrometeorological extreme events in consistently downscaled water availability and temperature measurements over a 30-year time period. We then used FLUXNET eddy covariance flux measurements to estimate the CO2 flux anomalies during these extreme events across dominant vegetation types and climate zones. Overall, our results indicate that short-term heat extremes increased respiration more strongly than they downregulated GPP, resulting in a moderate reduction in the ecosystem's carbon sink potential. In the absence of heat stress, droughts tended to have smaller and similarly dampening effects on both GPP and Reco and, hence, often resulted in neutral NEP responses. The combination of drought and heat typically led to a strong decrease in GPP, whereas heat and drought impacts on respiration partially offset each other. Taken together, compound heat and drought events led to the strongest C sink reduction compared to any single-factor extreme. A key insight of this paper, however, is that duration matters most: for heat stress during droughts, the magnitude of impacts systematically increased with duration, whereas under heat stress without drought, the response of Reco over time turned from an initial increase to a downregulation after about 2 weeks. This confirms earlier theories that not only the magnitude but also the duration of an extreme event determines its impact. Our study corroborates the results of several local site-level case studies but as a novelty generalizes these findings on the global scale. Specifically, we find that the different response functions of the two antipodal land–atmosphere fluxes GPP and Reco can also result in increasing NEP during certain extreme conditions. Apparently counterintuitive findings of this kind bear great potential for scrutinizing the mechanisms implemented in state-of-the-art terrestrial biosphere models and provide a benchmark for future model development and testing.},
doi = {10.5194/bg-15-1293-2018},
journal = {Biogeosciences (Online)},
number = 5,
volume = 15,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {3}
}