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Title: The sensitivity of benzene cluster cation chemical ionization mass spectrometry to select biogenic terpenes

Abstract

Benzene cluster cations are a sensitive and selective reagent ion for chemical ionization of select biogenic volatile organic compounds. We have previously reported the sensitivity of a field deployable chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CI-ToFMS), using benzene cluster cation ion chemistry, for detection of dimethyl sulfide, isoprene and α-pinene. Here, we present laboratory measurements of the sensitivity of the same instrument to a series of terpenes, including isoprene, α-pinene, β-pinene, D-limonene, ocimene, β-myrcene, farnesene, α-humulene, β-caryophyllene, and isolongifolene at atmospherically relevant mixing ratios (<100 pptv). In addition, we determine the dependence of CI-ToFMS sensitivity on the reagent ion neutral delivery concentration and water vapor concentration. We show that isoprene is primarily detected as an adduct (C 5H 8∙C 6H$$+\atop{6}$$) with a sensitivity ranging between 4 and 10 ncps ppt -1, which depends strongly on the reagent ion precursor concentration, de-clustering voltages, and specific humidity (SH). Monoterpenes are detected primarily as the molecular ion (C 10H$$+\atop{1}$$6) with an average sensitivity, across the five measured compounds, of 14 ± 3 ncps ppt -1 for SH between 7 and 14 g kg -1, typical of the boreal forest during summer. Sesquiterpenes are detected primarily as the molecular ion (C 15H$$+\atop{24}$$) with an average sensitivity, across the four measured compounds, of 9.6 ± 2.3 ncps ppt -1, that is also independent of specific humidity. Comparable sensitivities across broad classes of terpenes (e.g., monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes), coupled to the limited dependence on specific humidity, suggest that benzene cluster cation CI-ToFMS is suitable for field studies of biosphere–atmosphere interactions.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [2]
  1. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
  2. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23); National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1502930
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0006431; AGS-1151430
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (Online); Journal Volume: 11; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 1867-8548
Publisher:
European Geosciences Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Lavi, Avi, Vermeuel, Michael P., Novak, Gordon A., and Bertram, Timothy H. The sensitivity of benzene cluster cation chemical ionization mass spectrometry to select biogenic terpenes. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.5194/amt-11-3251-2018.
Lavi, Avi, Vermeuel, Michael P., Novak, Gordon A., & Bertram, Timothy H. The sensitivity of benzene cluster cation chemical ionization mass spectrometry to select biogenic terpenes. United States. doi:10.5194/amt-11-3251-2018.
Lavi, Avi, Vermeuel, Michael P., Novak, Gordon A., and Bertram, Timothy H. Thu . "The sensitivity of benzene cluster cation chemical ionization mass spectrometry to select biogenic terpenes". United States. doi:10.5194/amt-11-3251-2018. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1502930.
@article{osti_1502930,
title = {The sensitivity of benzene cluster cation chemical ionization mass spectrometry to select biogenic terpenes},
author = {Lavi, Avi and Vermeuel, Michael P. and Novak, Gordon A. and Bertram, Timothy H.},
abstractNote = {Benzene cluster cations are a sensitive and selective reagent ion for chemical ionization of select biogenic volatile organic compounds. We have previously reported the sensitivity of a field deployable chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CI-ToFMS), using benzene cluster cation ion chemistry, for detection of dimethyl sulfide, isoprene and α-pinene. Here, we present laboratory measurements of the sensitivity of the same instrument to a series of terpenes, including isoprene, α-pinene, β-pinene, D-limonene, ocimene, β-myrcene, farnesene, α-humulene, β-caryophyllene, and isolongifolene at atmospherically relevant mixing ratios (<100 pptv). In addition, we determine the dependence of CI-ToFMS sensitivity on the reagent ion neutral delivery concentration and water vapor concentration. We show that isoprene is primarily detected as an adduct (C5H8∙C6H$+\atop{6}$) with a sensitivity ranging between 4 and 10 ncps ppt-1, which depends strongly on the reagent ion precursor concentration, de-clustering voltages, and specific humidity (SH). Monoterpenes are detected primarily as the molecular ion (C10H$+\atop{1}$6) with an average sensitivity, across the five measured compounds, of 14 ± 3 ncps ppt-1 for SH between 7 and 14 g kg-1, typical of the boreal forest during summer. Sesquiterpenes are detected primarily as the molecular ion (C15H$+\atop{24}$) with an average sensitivity, across the four measured compounds, of 9.6 ± 2.3 ncps ppt-1, that is also independent of specific humidity. Comparable sensitivities across broad classes of terpenes (e.g., monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes), coupled to the limited dependence on specific humidity, suggest that benzene cluster cation CI-ToFMS is suitable for field studies of biosphere–atmosphere interactions.},
doi = {10.5194/amt-11-3251-2018},
journal = {Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (Online)},
number = 6,
volume = 11,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {6}
}

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    A field-deployable, chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer
    journal, January 2011

    • Bertram, T. H.; Kimmel, J. R.; Crisp, T. A.
    • Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, Vol. 4, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.5194/amt-4-1471-2011

    Benzene Dimer:  A Good Model for π−π Interactions in Proteins? A Comparison between the Benzene and the Toluene Dimers in the Gas Phase and in an Aqueous Solution
    journal, January 1996

    • Chipot, Christophe; Jaffe, Richard; Maigret, Bernard
    • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 118, Issue 45
    • DOI: 10.1021/ja961379l

    A large atomic chlorine source inferred from mid-continental reactive nitrogen chemistry
    journal, March 2010

    • Thornton, Joel A.; Kercher, James P.; Riedel, Theran P.
    • Nature, Vol. 464, Issue 7286
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature08905

    Size and composition measurements of background aerosol and new particle growth in a Finnish forest during QUEST 2 using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer
    journal, January 2006

    • Allan, J. D.; Alfarra, M. R.; Bower, K. N.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 6, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-6-315-2006

    Selective measurements of isoprene and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol based on NO + ionization mass spectrometry
    journal, January 2012


    Nitric oxide chemical ionization mass spectra of alkanes
    journal, October 1975

    • Hunt, Donald F.; Harvey, T. Michael.
    • Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 47, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1021/ac60362a030

    Nitric oxide chemical ionization mass spectrometry of alcohols
    journal, March 1982

    • Hunt, Donald F.; Harvey, T. Michael.; Brumley, William C.
    • Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 54, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1021/ac00240a032

    Stepwise Hydration of Ionized Aromatics. Energies, Structures of the Hydrated Benzene Cation, and the Mechanism of Deprotonation Reactions
    journal, May 2005

    • Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Meot-Ner, Michael; Alshraeh, Edreese H.
    • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 127, Issue 19
    • DOI: 10.1021/ja050477g

    Infrared Spectroscopy of Size-Selected Benzene−Water Cluster Cations [C 6 H 6 −(H 2 O) n ] + ( n = 1−23): Hydrogen Bond Network Evolution and Microscopic Hydrophobicity
    journal, December 2004

    • Miyazaki, Mitsuhiko; Fujii, Asuka; Ebata, Takayuki
    • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 108, Issue 48
    • DOI: 10.1021/jp045823f

    Environmental conditions regulate the impact of plants on cloud formation
    journal, February 2017

    • Zhao, D. F.; Buchholz, A.; Tillmann, R.
    • Nature Communications, Vol. 8, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14067

    A Spectroscopic Study of Alpha-Ray-Induced Luminescence in Gases: Part I
    journal, February 1966

    • Dondes, S.; Harteck, P.; Kunz, C.
    • Radiation Research, Vol. 27, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.2307/3571909

    Photoionization study of the ionization potentials and fragmentation paths of the chlorinated methanes and carbon tetrabromide
    journal, May 1974

    • Werner, Arthur S.; Tsai, Bilin P.; Baer, Tomas
    • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 60, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.1681585

    Dissociation energies of the benzene dimer and dimer cation
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    • Grover, J. R.; Walters, E. A.; Hui, E. T.
    • The Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 91, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1021/j100296a026

    Production of extremely low volatile organic compounds from biogenic emissions: Measured yields and atmospheric implications
    journal, May 2015

    • Jokinen, Tuija; Berndt, Torsten; Makkonen, Risto
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, Issue 23
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1423977112

    Evaluation of NO + reagent ion chemistry for online measurements of atmospheric volatile organic compounds
    journal, January 2016

    • Koss, Abigail R.; Warneke, Carsten; Yuan, Bin
    • Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, Vol. 9, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.5194/amt-9-2909-2016

    A new feedback mechanism linking forests, aerosols, and climate
    journal, January 2004

    • Kulmala, M.; Suni, T.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 4, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-4-557-2004

    The chemical and microphysical properties of secondary organic aerosols from Holm Oak emissions
    journal, January 2010

    • Lang-Yona, N.; Rudich, Y.; Mentel, Th. F.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 10, Issue 15
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-10-7253-2010

    Measurement of atmospheric sesquiterpenes by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS)
    journal, January 2009

    • Kim, S.; Karl, T.; Helmig, D.
    • Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, Vol. 2, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.5194/amt-2-99-2009

    A controlling role for the air-sea interface in the chemical processing of reactive nitrogen in the coastal marine boundary layer
    journal, March 2014

    • Kim, M. J.; Farmer, D. K.; Bertram, T. H.
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1318694111

    Dissociative ionization of benzene in intense ultra-fast laser pulses
    journal, October 2000

    • Talebpour, A.; Bandrauk, A. D.; Vijayalakshmi, K.
    • Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Vol. 33, Issue 21
    • DOI: 10.1088/0953-4075/33/21/307

    Electronic Structure of Terpenoids
    journal, June 2001

    • Novak, Igor; Kovač, Branka; Kovačević, Goran
    • The Journal of Organic Chemistry, Vol. 66, Issue 13
    • DOI: 10.1021/jo010141z

    Nitryl Chloride and Molecular Chlorine in the Coastal Marine Boundary Layer
    journal, April 2012

    • Riedel, Theran P.; Bertram, Timothy H.; Crisp, Timia A.
    • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 46, Issue 19
    • DOI: 10.1021/es204632r

    Product ion distributions for the reactions of NO+ with some physiologically significant aldehydes obtained using a SRI-TOF-MS instrument
    journal, April 2014

    • Mochalski, Paweł; Unterkofler, Karl; Španěl, Patrik
    • International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, Vol. 363
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.ijms.2014.02.016

    Ion–Molecule Reactions in Aromatic Systems. I. Secondary Ions and Reaction Rates in Benzene
    journal, January 1969

    • Lifshitz, Chava; Reuben, Bryan G.
    • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 50, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.1671149

    Ion-induced nucleation of pure biogenic particles
    journal, May 2016

    • Kirkby, Jasper; Duplissy, Jonathan; Sengupta, Kamalika
    • Nature, Vol. 533, Issue 7604
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature17953

    Revisiting benzene cluster cations for the chemical ionization of dimethyl sulfide and select volatile organic compounds
    journal, January 2016

    • Kim, Michelle J.; Zoerb, Matthew C.; Campbell, Nicole R.
    • Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, Vol. 9, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.5194/amt-9-1473-2016

    30.4-nm He(II) Photoelectron spectra of organic molecules
    journal, January 1981

    • Bieri, Gerhard; Åsbrink, Leif; Von Niessen, Wolfgang
    • Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, Vol. 23, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1016/0368-2048(81)80036-9

    Measurement of Gas-Phase Hydroperoxides by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry
    journal, October 2006

    • Crounse, John D.; McKinney, Karena A.; Kwan, Alan J.
    • Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 78, Issue 19
    • DOI: 10.1021/ac0604235

    The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature version 2.1 (MEGAN2.1): an extended and updated framework for modeling biogenic emissions
    journal, January 2012

    • Guenther, A. B.; Jiang, X.; Heald, C. L.
    • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 5, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-5-1471-2012

    The formation, properties and impact of secondary organic aerosol: current and emerging issues
    journal, January 2009

    • Hallquist, M.; Wenger, J. C.; Baltensperger, U.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 9, Issue 14
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-9-5155-2009

    Observationally constrained estimates of carbonaceous aerosol radiative forcing
    journal, July 2012

    • Chung, C. E.; Ramanathan, V.; Decremer, D.
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 109, Issue 29
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1203707109

    Excited state lifetimes and appearance potentials of benzene dimer and trimer
    journal, December 1989

    • Shinohara, Hisanori; Nishi, Nobuyuki
    • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 91, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.457342