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Title: Equation of State Dependent Dynamics and Multi-messenger Signals from Stellar-mass Black Hole Formation

Abstract

We investigate axisymmetric black hole (BH) formation and its gravitational wave (GW) and neutrino signals with self-consistent core-collapse supernova simulations of a non-rotating 40 M progenitor star using the isotropic diffusion source approximation for the neutrino transport and a modified gravitational potential for general relativistic effects. We consider four different neutron star (NS) equations of state (EoS): LS220, SFHo, BHBΛ$$\phi$$, and DD2, and study the impact of the EoS on BH formation dynamics and GW emission. We find that the BH formation time is sensitive to the EoS from 460 to >1300 ms and is delayed in multiple dimensions for ~100–250 ms due to the finite entropy effects. Depending on the EoS, our simulations show the possibility that shock revival can occur along with the collapse of the proto-neutron star (PNS) to a BH. The gravitational waveforms contain four major features that are similar to previous studies but show extreme values: (1) a low-frequency signal (~300–500 Hz) from core-bounce and prompt convection, (2) a strong signal from the PNS g-mode oscillation among other features, (3) a high-frequency signal from the PNS inner-core convection, and (4) signals from the standing accretion shock instability and convection. The peak frequency at the onset of BH formation reaches to ~2.3 kHz. Thus, the characteristic amplitude of a 10 kpc object at peak frequency is detectable but close to the noise threshold of the Advanced LIGO and KAGRA, suggesting that the next-generation GW detector will need to improve the sensitivity at the kHz domain to better observe stellar-mass BH formation from core-collapse supernovae or failed supernovae.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2]
  1. Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)
  2. Univ. of Basel, Basel (Switzerland)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1501839
Grant/Contract Number:  
[SC0015904]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
[Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 857; Journal Issue: 1]; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; gravitational waves; hydrodynamics; instabilities; neutrinos; stars; black hole; supernovae; general

Citation Formats

Pan, Kuo-Chuan, Liebendörfer, Matthias, Couch, Sean M., and Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl. Equation of State Dependent Dynamics and Multi-messenger Signals from Stellar-mass Black Hole Formation. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aab71d.
Pan, Kuo-Chuan, Liebendörfer, Matthias, Couch, Sean M., & Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl. Equation of State Dependent Dynamics and Multi-messenger Signals from Stellar-mass Black Hole Formation. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aab71d.
Pan, Kuo-Chuan, Liebendörfer, Matthias, Couch, Sean M., and Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl. Mon . "Equation of State Dependent Dynamics and Multi-messenger Signals from Stellar-mass Black Hole Formation". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aab71d. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1501839.
@article{osti_1501839,
title = {Equation of State Dependent Dynamics and Multi-messenger Signals from Stellar-mass Black Hole Formation},
author = {Pan, Kuo-Chuan and Liebendörfer, Matthias and Couch, Sean M. and Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl},
abstractNote = {We investigate axisymmetric black hole (BH) formation and its gravitational wave (GW) and neutrino signals with self-consistent core-collapse supernova simulations of a non-rotating 40 M⊙ progenitor star using the isotropic diffusion source approximation for the neutrino transport and a modified gravitational potential for general relativistic effects. We consider four different neutron star (NS) equations of state (EoS): LS220, SFHo, BHBΛ$\phi$, and DD2, and study the impact of the EoS on BH formation dynamics and GW emission. We find that the BH formation time is sensitive to the EoS from 460 to >1300 ms and is delayed in multiple dimensions for ~100–250 ms due to the finite entropy effects. Depending on the EoS, our simulations show the possibility that shock revival can occur along with the collapse of the proto-neutron star (PNS) to a BH. The gravitational waveforms contain four major features that are similar to previous studies but show extreme values: (1) a low-frequency signal (~300–500 Hz) from core-bounce and prompt convection, (2) a strong signal from the PNS g-mode oscillation among other features, (3) a high-frequency signal from the PNS inner-core convection, and (4) signals from the standing accretion shock instability and convection. The peak frequency at the onset of BH formation reaches to ~2.3 kHz. Thus, the characteristic amplitude of a 10 kpc object at peak frequency is detectable but close to the noise threshold of the Advanced LIGO and KAGRA, suggesting that the next-generation GW detector will need to improve the sensitivity at the kHz domain to better observe stellar-mass BH formation from core-collapse supernovae or failed supernovae.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/aab71d},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = [1],
volume = [857],
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {4}
}

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Cited by: 12 works
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Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Time evolution of averaged shock radius (left) and central density (right). Different colors represent simulations with different nuclear EoS. Thick and thin lines indicate simulations in 2D and 1D, respectively.

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Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.