skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Arrow of time and its reversal on the IBM quantum computer

Abstract

Uncovering the origin of the “arrow of time” remains a fundamental scientific challenge. Within the framework of statistical physics, this problem was inextricably associated with the second Law of thermodynamics, which declares that entropy growth proceeds from the system’s entanglement with the environment. this poses a question of whether it is possible to develop protocols for circumventing the irreversibility of time and if so to practically implement these protocols. Here we show that, while in nature the complex conjugation needed for time reversal may appear exponentially improbable, one can design a quantum algorithm that includes complex conjugation and thus reverses a given quantum state. Using this algorithm on an IBM quantum computer enables us to experimentally demonstrate a backward time dynamics for an electron scattered on a two-level impurity.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [3]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russia)
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  3. Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russia); ETH Zürich (Switzerland)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Materials Sciences & Engineering Division; Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF); Russian Federation
OSTI Identifier:
1501597
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
97 MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTING

Citation Formats

Lesovik, G. B., Sadovskyy, I. A., Suslov, M. V., Lebedev, A. V., and Vinokur, V. M. Arrow of time and its reversal on the IBM quantum computer. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-40765-6.
Lesovik, G. B., Sadovskyy, I. A., Suslov, M. V., Lebedev, A. V., & Vinokur, V. M. Arrow of time and its reversal on the IBM quantum computer. United States. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-40765-6.
Lesovik, G. B., Sadovskyy, I. A., Suslov, M. V., Lebedev, A. V., and Vinokur, V. M. Wed . "Arrow of time and its reversal on the IBM quantum computer". United States. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-40765-6. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1501597.
@article{osti_1501597,
title = {Arrow of time and its reversal on the IBM quantum computer},
author = {Lesovik, G. B. and Sadovskyy, I. A. and Suslov, M. V. and Lebedev, A. V. and Vinokur, V. M.},
abstractNote = {Uncovering the origin of the “arrow of time” remains a fundamental scientific challenge. Within the framework of statistical physics, this problem was inextricably associated with the second Law of thermodynamics, which declares that entropy growth proceeds from the system’s entanglement with the environment. this poses a question of whether it is possible to develop protocols for circumventing the irreversibility of time and if so to practically implement these protocols. Here we show that, while in nature the complex conjugation needed for time reversal may appear exponentially improbable, one can design a quantum algorithm that includes complex conjugation and thus reverses a given quantum state. Using this algorithm on an IBM quantum computer enables us to experimentally demonstrate a backward time dynamics for an electron scattered on a two-level impurity.},
doi = {10.1038/s41598-019-40765-6},
journal = {Scientific Reports},
number = 1,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {3}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 3 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Time reversal procedure for a Gaussian wave-packet $Ψ$($x$, 0) $∝$ exp(−$x$2/2σ2), σ = 1(a. u. ). The wavepacket spreads $Ψ$($x$, 0) → $Ψ$($x, τ$) according to a quadratic Hamiltonian $\hat{p}$2 /2$m$ during the time interval $τ$ = 3$mσ$2/$h$. At the moment $τ$ the system is exposed to themore » fast step-wise electromagnetic potential fluctuation v(x) (second panel). The fluctuation approximately (with the precision corresponding to the density of partitioning points) conjugates the phase of the wave-function: $Φ$($x, τ$−0) → $ϕ$($x, τ$+0) = $ϕ$($x, τ$−0) + $ev$($x, τ$)$\delta$$τ$/$h$ (third panel). The prepared time-reversed state $\tilde{Ψ}$ ($x, τ$ ) then freely evolves during the same time interval $τ$ and arrives to the squeezed state $\tilde{Ψ}$($x, 2τ$) (fourth panel). The resulting state $\tilde{Ψ}$($x, 2τ$ ) has 86% overlap with the initial state $Ψ$($x$, 0) shown as an empty envelope curve in the fourth panel.« less

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

The entropy gain of infinite-dimensional quantum evolutions
journal, October 2010


Decoherence, Chaos, Quantum-Classical Correspondence, and the Algorithmic Arrow of Time
journal, January 1998


Statistical mechanics: A selective review of two central issues
journal, March 1999


Irreversibility and the Arrow of Time in a Quenched Quantum System
journal, November 2015


Elementary gates for quantum computation
journal, November 1995

  • Barenco, Adriano; Bennett, Charles H.; Cleve, Richard
  • Physical Review A, Vol. 52, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.52.3457

Entropy production and the arrow of time
journal, July 2009


Time reversal and charge conjugation in an embedding quantum simulator
journal, August 2015

  • Zhang, Xiang; Shen, Yangchao; Zhang, Junhua
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms8917

Reconstructing quantum entropy production to probe irreversibility and correlations
journal, June 2018

  • Gherardini, Stefano; Müller, Matthias M.; Trombettoni, Andrea
  • Quantum Science and Technology, Vol. 3, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1088/2058-9565/aac7e1

Operational formulation of time reversal in quantum theory
journal, July 2015

  • Oreshkov, Ognyan; Cerf, Nicolas J.
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 11, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys3414

Comment on “Quantum Solution to the Arrow-of-Time Dilemma”
journal, April 2010


Wigner Entropy Production Rate
journal, June 2017


IX.— On the Dynamical Theory of Heat . Part V. Thermo-electric Currents
journal, January 1857


Fluctuation, Dissipation and the Arrow of Time
journal, December 2011


Das D�mpfungsproblem in der Wellenmechanik
journal, May 1927


Nonequilibrium Entropy Production for Open Quantum Systems
journal, September 2011


Entropy Production and Time Asymmetry in Nonequilibrium Fluctuations
journal, April 2007


N -Particle Scattering Matrix for Electrons Interacting on a Quantum Dot
journal, June 2008


Universal Quantum Simulators
journal, August 1996


Ensemble quantum computing by NMR spectroscopy
journal, March 1997

  • Cory, D. G.; Fahmy, A. F.; Havel, T. F.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 94, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.94.5.1634

Quantum Solution to the Arrow-of-Time Dilemma
journal, August 2009


Colloquium : Quantum fluctuation relations: Foundations and applications
journal, July 2011

  • Campisi, Michele; Hänggi, Peter; Talkner, Peter
  • Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 83, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1103/RevModPhys.83.771

Experimental Rectification of Entropy Production by Maxwell’s Demon in a Quantum System
journal, December 2016


H-theorem in quantum physics
journal, September 2016

  • Lesovik, G. B.; Lebedev, A. V.; Sadovskyy, I. A.
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep32815

Entanglement and the thermodynamic arrow of time
journal, June 2010


    Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.