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Title: Single-shot structural analysis by high-energy X-ray diffraction using an ultrashort all-optical source

Abstract

High-energy X-rays (HEX-rays) with photon energies on order of 100 keV have attractive characteristics, such as comparably low absorption, high spatial resolution and the ability to access inner-shell states of heavy atoms. These properties are advantageous for many applications ranging from studies of bulk materials to the investigation of materials in extreme conditions. Ultrafast X-ray diffraction allows the direct imaging of atomic dynamics simultaneously on its natural time and length scale. However, using HEX-rays for ultrafast studies has been limited due to the lack of sources that can generate pulses of sufficiently short (femtosecond) duration in this wavelength range. Here we show single-crystal diffraction using ultrashort ~90 keV HEX-ray pulses generated by an all-optical source based on inverse Compton scattering. We also demonstrate a method for measuring the crystal lattice spacing in a single shot that contains only ~10 5 photons in a spectral bandwidth of ~50% full width at half maximum (FWHM). Our approach allows us to obtain structural information from the full X-ray spectrum. As target we use a cylindrically bent Ge crystal in Laue transmission geometry. As a result, this experiment constitutes a first step towards measurements of ultrafast atomic dynamics using femtosecond HEX-ray pulses.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States)
  2. STFC Rutherford Appleton Lab, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1500116
Grant/Contract Number:  
FG02-05ER15663
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 7; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS

Citation Formats

Rakowski, R., Golovin, G., O’Neal, J., Zhang, J., Zhang, P., Zhao, B., Wilson, M. D., Veale, M. C., Seller, P., Chen, S., Banerjee, S., Umstadter, D., and Fuchs, M. Single-shot structural analysis by high-energy X-ray diffraction using an ultrashort all-optical source. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-16477-0.
Rakowski, R., Golovin, G., O’Neal, J., Zhang, J., Zhang, P., Zhao, B., Wilson, M. D., Veale, M. C., Seller, P., Chen, S., Banerjee, S., Umstadter, D., & Fuchs, M. Single-shot structural analysis by high-energy X-ray diffraction using an ultrashort all-optical source. United States. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-16477-0.
Rakowski, R., Golovin, G., O’Neal, J., Zhang, J., Zhang, P., Zhao, B., Wilson, M. D., Veale, M. C., Seller, P., Chen, S., Banerjee, S., Umstadter, D., and Fuchs, M. Thu . "Single-shot structural analysis by high-energy X-ray diffraction using an ultrashort all-optical source". United States. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-16477-0. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1500116.
@article{osti_1500116,
title = {Single-shot structural analysis by high-energy X-ray diffraction using an ultrashort all-optical source},
author = {Rakowski, R. and Golovin, G. and O’Neal, J. and Zhang, J. and Zhang, P. and Zhao, B. and Wilson, M. D. and Veale, M. C. and Seller, P. and Chen, S. and Banerjee, S. and Umstadter, D. and Fuchs, M.},
abstractNote = {High-energy X-rays (HEX-rays) with photon energies on order of 100 keV have attractive characteristics, such as comparably low absorption, high spatial resolution and the ability to access inner-shell states of heavy atoms. These properties are advantageous for many applications ranging from studies of bulk materials to the investigation of materials in extreme conditions. Ultrafast X-ray diffraction allows the direct imaging of atomic dynamics simultaneously on its natural time and length scale. However, using HEX-rays for ultrafast studies has been limited due to the lack of sources that can generate pulses of sufficiently short (femtosecond) duration in this wavelength range. Here we show single-crystal diffraction using ultrashort ~90 keV HEX-ray pulses generated by an all-optical source based on inverse Compton scattering. We also demonstrate a method for measuring the crystal lattice spacing in a single shot that contains only ~105 photons in a spectral bandwidth of ~50% full width at half maximum (FWHM). Our approach allows us to obtain structural information from the full X-ray spectrum. As target we use a cylindrically bent Ge crystal in Laue transmission geometry. As a result, this experiment constitutes a first step towards measurements of ultrafast atomic dynamics using femtosecond HEX-ray pulses.},
doi = {10.1038/s41598-017-16477-0},
journal = {Scientific Reports},
number = 1,
volume = 7,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {11}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Schematic of the experimental setup. (a) shows the schematic of the inverse Compton X-ray source. The X-rays are generated by backscattering of a high-intensity laser beam from a relativistic electron beam that is produced by a laser-plasma interaction. Subsequently, the electrons are bent out of the X-ray pathmore » by a dipole magnet and the optical laser pulse is filtered out by a thin Al foil, while the X-rays are transmitted. The spectrum of the electron beam is diagnosed with a phosphor screen. A cylindrically bent Ge crystal is positioned at 2.25 m downstream of the X-ray source. The diffraction signal is observed with an energy-resolving pixelated CdTe X-ray camera. (b) shows an enlarged schematic of the HEX-ray spectrometer showing the bent Ge crystal with radius of curvature (ROC) of 0.254 m and the detector. The (220) planes of the crystal are used for diffraction. The crystal is enclosed in a housing with a lead entrance window that blocks the direct beam except for a small pinhole. A slit is placed at the position where the diffracted X-rays cross the spectrometer axis in order to block any direct line-of-sight between the source and the detector. The X-rays are detected in a plane close to the Rowland circle indicated by the dashed line. The distance of the slit to the focal circle is indicated by B and the distance of the detector position from the focal circle by D. The whole spectrometer is shielded from background through a lead and Teflon enclosure.« less

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