skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: The aerodynamics of the curled wake: a simplified model in view of flow control

Abstract

Abstract. When a wind turbine is yawed, the shape of the wake changes and a curled wake profile is generated. The curled wake has drawn a lot of interest because of its aerodynamic complexity and applicability to wind farm controls. The main mechanism for the creation of the curled wake has been identified in the literature as a collection of vortices that are shed from the rotor plane when the turbine is yawed. This work extends that idea by using aerodynamic concepts to develop a control-oriented model for the curled wake based on approximations to the Navier–Stokes equations. The model is tested and compared to time-averaged results from large-eddy simulations using actuator disk and line models. The model is able to capture the curling mechanism fora turbine under uniform inflow and in the case of a neutral atmospheric boundary layer. As a result, the model is then incorporated to the FLOw Redirection and Induction in Steady State (FLORIS)framework and provides good agreement with power predictions for cases with two and three turbines in a row.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Wind Energy Technologies Office (EE-4WE)
OSTI Identifier:
1500075
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5000-73451
Journal ID: ISSN 2366-7451
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Wind Energy Science (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Wind Energy Science (Online); Journal Volume: 4; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2366-7451
Publisher:
European Wind Energy Association - Copernicus
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
17 WIND ENERGY; yaw; wake; wind turbines; aerodynamics; control

Citation Formats

Martínez-Tossas, Luis A., Annoni, Jennifer, Fleming, Paul A., and Churchfield, Matthew J. The aerodynamics of the curled wake: a simplified model in view of flow control. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.5194/wes-4-127-2019.
Martínez-Tossas, Luis A., Annoni, Jennifer, Fleming, Paul A., & Churchfield, Matthew J. The aerodynamics of the curled wake: a simplified model in view of flow control. United States. doi:10.5194/wes-4-127-2019.
Martínez-Tossas, Luis A., Annoni, Jennifer, Fleming, Paul A., and Churchfield, Matthew J. Tue . "The aerodynamics of the curled wake: a simplified model in view of flow control". United States. doi:10.5194/wes-4-127-2019. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1500075.
@article{osti_1500075,
title = {The aerodynamics of the curled wake: a simplified model in view of flow control},
author = {Martínez-Tossas, Luis A. and Annoni, Jennifer and Fleming, Paul A. and Churchfield, Matthew J.},
abstractNote = {Abstract. When a wind turbine is yawed, the shape of the wake changes and a curled wake profile is generated. The curled wake has drawn a lot of interest because of its aerodynamic complexity and applicability to wind farm controls. The main mechanism for the creation of the curled wake has been identified in the literature as a collection of vortices that are shed from the rotor plane when the turbine is yawed. This work extends that idea by using aerodynamic concepts to develop a control-oriented model for the curled wake based on approximations to the Navier–Stokes equations. The model is tested and compared to time-averaged results from large-eddy simulations using actuator disk and line models. The model is able to capture the curling mechanism fora turbine under uniform inflow and in the case of a neutral atmospheric boundary layer. As a result, the model is then incorporated to the FLOw Redirection and Induction in Steady State (FLORIS)framework and provides good agreement with power predictions for cases with two and three turbines in a row.},
doi = {10.5194/wes-4-127-2019},
journal = {Wind Energy Science (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 4,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {3}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Diagram showing a collection of vortices shed from the rotor plane with the corresponding downstream distribution of spanwise velocities due to the superposition of the vortices.

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

The vertical distribution of wind and turbulent exchange in a neutral atmosphere
journal, July 1962


Measurements on a wind turbine wake: 3D effects and bluff body vortex shedding
journal, May 2006

  • Medici, D.; Alfredsson, P. H.
  • Wind Energy, Vol. 9, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/we.156

A simulation study demonstrating the importance of large-scale trailing vortices in wake steering
journal, January 2018

  • Fleming, Paul; Annoni, Jennifer; Churchfield, Matthew
  • Wind Energy Science, Vol. 3, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.5194/wes-3-243-2018

Vertical Variations of Mixing Lengths under Neutral and Stable Conditions during CASES-99
journal, October 2011


Wind tunnel experiments on wind turbine wakes in yaw: effects of inflow turbulence and shear
journal, January 2018

  • Bartl, Jan; Mühle, Franz; Schottler, Jannik
  • Wind Energy Science, Vol. 3, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.5194/wes-3-329-2018

Experimental investigation of wake effects on wind turbine performance
journal, August 2011


Experimental and theoretical study of wind turbine wakes in yawed conditions
journal, October 2016

  • Bastankhah, Majid; Porté-Agel, Fernando
  • Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 806
  • DOI: 10.1017/jfm.2016.595

Optimal smoothing length scale for actuator line models of wind turbine blades based on Gaussian body force distribution: Wind energy, actuator line model
journal, January 2017

  • Martínez-Tossas, L. A.; Churchfield, M. J.; Meneveau, C.
  • Wind Energy, Vol. 20, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1002/we.2081

Analysis of control-oriented wake modeling tools using lidar field results
journal, January 2018

  • Annoni, Jennifer; Fleming, Paul; Scholbrock, Andrew
  • Wind Energy Science, Vol. 3, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.5194/wes-3-819-2018

Estimating the wake deflection downstream of a wind turbine in different atmospheric stabilities: an LES study
journal, January 2016

  • Vollmer, Lukas; Steinfeld, Gerald; Heinemann, Detlev
  • Wind Energy Science, Vol. 1, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.5194/wes-1-129-2016

Wake structure in actuator disk models of wind turbines in yaw under uniform inflow conditions
journal, July 2016

  • Howland, Michael F.; Bossuyt, Juliaan; Martínez-Tossas, Luis A.
  • Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Vol. 8, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4955091

Three-Dimensional Free-Wake Vortex Simulations of an Actuator Disc in Yaw and Tilt
conference, January 2018


Modelling yawed wind turbine wakes: a lifting line approach
journal, February 2018

  • Shapiro, Carl R.; Gayme, Dennice F.; Meneveau, Charles
  • Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 841
  • DOI: 10.1017/jfm.2018.75

Wind farm power maximization based on a cooperative static game approach
conference, April 2013

  • Park, Jinkyoo; Kwon, Soonduck; Law, Kincho H.
  • SPIE Smart Structures and Materials + Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring, SPIE Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1117/12.2009618

Application of a LES technique to characterize the wake deflection of a wind turbine in yaw
journal, December 2009

  • Jiménez, Ángel; Crespo, Antonio; Migoya, Emilio
  • Wind Energy, Vol. 13, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1002/we.380

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Wind farm power optimization through wake steering
    journal, July 2019

    • Howland, Michael F.; Lele, Sanjiva K.; Dabiri, John O.
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 116, Issue 29
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1903680116

    Wind farm power optimization through wake steering
    journal, July 2019

    • Howland, Michael F.; Lele, Sanjiva K.; Dabiri, John O.
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 116, Issue 29
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1903680116