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Title: Photo Protection of Haematococcus pluvialis Algae by Astaxanthin: Unique Properties of Astaxanthin Deduced by EPR, Optical and Electrochemical Studies

Abstract

The antioxidant astaxanthin is known to accumulate in Haematococcus pluvialis algae under unfavorable environmental conditions for normal cell growth. The accumulated astaxanthin functions as a protective agent against oxidative stress damage, and tolerance to excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) is greater in astaxanthin-rich cells. The detailed mechanisms of protection have remained elusive, however, our Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), optical and electrochemical studies on carotenoids suggest that astaxanthin’s efficiency as a protective agent could be related to its ability to form chelate complexes with metals and to be esterified, its inability to aggregate in the ester form, its high oxidation potential and the ability to form proton loss neutral radicals under high illumination in the presence of metal ions. In conclusion, the neutral radical species formed by deprotonation of the radical cations can be very effective quenchers of the excited states of chlorophyll under high irradiation.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Valdosta State Univ., Valdosta, GA (United States)
  2. Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Novosibirsk (Russia)
  3. Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). The Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences Division
OSTI Identifier:
1499688
Grant/Contract Number:  
FG02-86ER13465
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Antioxidants
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 2076-3921
Publisher:
MDPI
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; astaxanthin; antioxidant; Haematococcus pluvialis; metal chelation; reactive oxygen species; photo protection; carotenoid; radical cation; proton loss neutral radicals

Citation Formats

Focsan, A. Ligia, Polyakov, Nikolay, and Kispert, Lowell D. Photo Protection of Haematococcus pluvialis Algae by Astaxanthin: Unique Properties of Astaxanthin Deduced by EPR, Optical and Electrochemical Studies. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3390/antiox6040080.
Focsan, A. Ligia, Polyakov, Nikolay, & Kispert, Lowell D. Photo Protection of Haematococcus pluvialis Algae by Astaxanthin: Unique Properties of Astaxanthin Deduced by EPR, Optical and Electrochemical Studies. United States. doi:10.3390/antiox6040080.
Focsan, A. Ligia, Polyakov, Nikolay, and Kispert, Lowell D. Sat . "Photo Protection of Haematococcus pluvialis Algae by Astaxanthin: Unique Properties of Astaxanthin Deduced by EPR, Optical and Electrochemical Studies". United States. doi:10.3390/antiox6040080. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1499688.
@article{osti_1499688,
title = {Photo Protection of Haematococcus pluvialis Algae by Astaxanthin: Unique Properties of Astaxanthin Deduced by EPR, Optical and Electrochemical Studies},
author = {Focsan, A. Ligia and Polyakov, Nikolay and Kispert, Lowell D.},
abstractNote = {The antioxidant astaxanthin is known to accumulate in Haematococcus pluvialis algae under unfavorable environmental conditions for normal cell growth. The accumulated astaxanthin functions as a protective agent against oxidative stress damage, and tolerance to excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) is greater in astaxanthin-rich cells. The detailed mechanisms of protection have remained elusive, however, our Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), optical and electrochemical studies on carotenoids suggest that astaxanthin’s efficiency as a protective agent could be related to its ability to form chelate complexes with metals and to be esterified, its inability to aggregate in the ester form, its high oxidation potential and the ability to form proton loss neutral radicals under high illumination in the presence of metal ions. In conclusion, the neutral radical species formed by deprotonation of the radical cations can be very effective quenchers of the excited states of chlorophyll under high irradiation.},
doi = {10.3390/antiox6040080},
journal = {Antioxidants},
number = 4,
volume = 6,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}

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