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Title: Harnessing mechanical instabilities at the nanoscale to achieve ultra-low stiffness metals

Abstract

Alloy and microstructure optimization have led to impressive improvements in the strength of engineering metals, while the range of Young’s moduli achievable has remained essentially unchanged. This is because stiffness is insensitive to microstructure and bounded by individual components in composites. Here we design ultra-low stiffness in fully dense, nanostructured metals via the stabilization of a mechanically unstable, negative stiffness state of a martensitic alloy by its coherent integration with a compatible, stable second component. Explicit large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of the metamaterials with state of the art potentials confirm the expected ultra-low stiffness while maintaining full strength. We find moduli as low as 2 GPa, a value typical of soft materials and over one order of magnitude lower than either constituent, defying long-standing composite bounds. Furthermore, such properties are attractive for flexible electronics and implantable devices. Our concept is generally applicable and could significantly enhance materials science design space.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [1]
  1. Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)
  2. Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1499683
Grant/Contract Number:  
[FG02-07ER46399]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 1]; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Reeve, Samuel Temple, Belessiotis-Richards, Alexis, and Strachan, Alejandro. Harnessing mechanical instabilities at the nanoscale to achieve ultra-low stiffness metals. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1038/s41467-017-01260-6.
Reeve, Samuel Temple, Belessiotis-Richards, Alexis, & Strachan, Alejandro. Harnessing mechanical instabilities at the nanoscale to achieve ultra-low stiffness metals. United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-017-01260-6.
Reeve, Samuel Temple, Belessiotis-Richards, Alexis, and Strachan, Alejandro. Thu . "Harnessing mechanical instabilities at the nanoscale to achieve ultra-low stiffness metals". United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-017-01260-6. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1499683.
@article{osti_1499683,
title = {Harnessing mechanical instabilities at the nanoscale to achieve ultra-low stiffness metals},
author = {Reeve, Samuel Temple and Belessiotis-Richards, Alexis and Strachan, Alejandro},
abstractNote = {Alloy and microstructure optimization have led to impressive improvements in the strength of engineering metals, while the range of Young’s moduli achievable has remained essentially unchanged. This is because stiffness is insensitive to microstructure and bounded by individual components in composites. Here we design ultra-low stiffness in fully dense, nanostructured metals via the stabilization of a mechanically unstable, negative stiffness state of a martensitic alloy by its coherent integration with a compatible, stable second component. Explicit large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of the metamaterials with state of the art potentials confirm the expected ultra-low stiffness while maintaining full strength. We find moduli as low as 2 GPa, a value typical of soft materials and over one order of magnitude lower than either constituent, defying long-standing composite bounds. Furthermore, such properties are attractive for flexible electronics and implantable devices. Our concept is generally applicable and could significantly enhance materials science design space.},
doi = {10.1038/s41467-017-01260-6},
journal = {Nature Communications},
number = [1],
volume = [8],
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 2 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Figures / Tables:

Fig. 1 Fig. 1 : Free energy landscape engineering in NiAl. Free energy as a function of in-plane lattice parameter from MD simulations of bulk Ni63Al37 and NiAl, interpolated with rule of mixtures. The combination of 65 at% Ni63Al37 (thick red) and 35 at% NiAl (thick blue) is highlighted in black tomore » show the possibility of ultra-low stiffness. The martensite and austenite are labeled for Ni63Al37. The inset shows a schematic of the epitaxial interface between NiAl and Ni63Al37 where Al atoms are light blue, Ni in NiAl is dark blue, and Ni in Ni63Al37 is red. Note that this atomic coloring is unique to this figure« less

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Foam Structures with a Negative Poisson's Ratio
    journal, February 1987


    Metamaterials beyond electromagnetism
    journal, November 2013


    Shape memory metamaterials with tunable thermo-mechanical response via hetero-epitaxial integration: A molecular dynamics study
    journal, March 2013

    • Guda Vishnu, Karthik; Strachan, Alejandro
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 113, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4794819

    Ultralight Metallic Microlattices
    journal, November 2011


    Enhancement of Ferroelectricity in Strained BaTiO3 Thin Films
    journal, November 2004


    Fabrication of Responsive, Softening Neural Interfaces
    journal, May 2012

    • Ware, Taylor; Simon, Dustin; Arreaga-Salas, David E.
    • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 22, Issue 16
    • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200200

    Interatomic potentials for B2 NiAl and martensitic phases
    journal, March 1995

    • Farkas, D.; Mutasa, B.; Vailhe, C.
    • Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 3, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1088/0965-0393/3/2/005

    Ultralow-fatigue shape memory alloy films
    journal, May 2015


    Development of an interatomic potential for the Ni-Al system
    journal, December 2009


    3D Soft Metamaterials with Negative Poisson's Ratio
    journal, July 2013

    • Babaee, Sahab; Shim, Jongmin; Weaver, James C.
    • Advanced Materials, Vol. 25, Issue 36
    • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301986

    Structural Biological Materials: Critical Mechanics-Materials Connections
    journal, February 2013


    Synthesis and Surface Engineering of Complex Nanostructures by Atomic Layer Deposition
    journal, November 2007

    • Knez, M.; Nielsch, K.; Niinistö, L.
    • Advanced Materials, Vol. 19, Issue 21, p. 3425-3438
    • DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700079

    Fibre reinforced composites in aircraft construction
    journal, February 2005


    Tough, Bio-Inspired Hybrid Materials
    journal, December 2008


    Composite Materials with Viscoelastic Stiffness Greater Than Diamond
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    • Style, Robert W.; Boltyanskiy, Rostislav; Allen, Benjamin
    • Nature Physics, Vol. 11, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/nphys3181

    Double-Negative Mechanical Metamaterials Displaying Simultaneous Negative Stiffness and Negative Poisson's Ratio Properties
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    • Hewage, Trishan A. M.; Alderson, Kim L.; Alderson, Andrew
    • Advanced Materials, Vol. 28, Issue 46
    • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603959

    Experimental evidence of ferroelectric negative capacitance in nanoscale heterostructures
    journal, September 2011

    • Islam Khan, Asif; Bhowmik, Debanjan; Yu, Pu
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    • DOI: 10.1063/1.3634072

    High strength, low stiffness, porous NiTi with superelastic properties
    journal, November 2005


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    • Lauhon, Lincoln J.; Gudiksen, Mark S.; Wang, Deli
    • Nature, Vol. 420, Issue 6911, p. 57-61
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature01141

    Hybrids to fill holes in material property space
    journal, September 2005


    Extreme damping in composite materials with negative-stiffness inclusions
    journal, March 2001

    • Lakes, R. S.; Lee, T.; Bersie, A.
    • Nature, Vol. 410, Issue 6828
    • DOI: 10.1038/35069035

    New Directions for Low-Dimensional Thermoelectric Materials
    journal, April 2007

    • Dresselhaus, M. S.; Chen, G.; Tang, M. Y.
    • Advanced Materials, Vol. 19, Issue 8, p. 1043-1053
    • DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600527

    Ultralight, ultrastiff mechanical metamaterials
    journal, June 2014


    Transformation-induced plasticity for high strength formable steels
    journal, June 2004


    Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3
    journal, August 2004

    • Haeni, J. H.; Irvin, P.; Chang, W.
    • Nature, Vol. 430, Issue 7001, p. 758-761
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature02773

    Negative capacitance in a ferroelectric capacitor
    journal, December 2014

    • Khan, Asif Islam; Chatterjee, Korok; Wang, Brian
    • Nature Materials, Vol. 14, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1038/nmat4148

    Spider Silk: From Soluble Protein to Extraordinary Fiber
    journal, May 2009

    • Heim, Markus; Keerl, David; Scheibel, Thomas
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    • DOI: 10.1002/anie.200803341

    On spinodal decomposition
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    Nanostructured artificial nacre
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    • Tang, Zhiyong; Kotov, Nicholas A.; Magonov, Sergei
    • Nature Materials, Vol. 2, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1038/nmat906

    Extreme damping in compliant composites with a negative-stiffness phase
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      Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.