DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Fast charge implications: Pack and cell analysis and comparison

Abstract

This study investigates the effect of 50-kW (about 2C) direct current fast charging on a full-size battery electric vehicle's battery pack in comparison to a pack exclusively charged at 3.3 kW, which is the common alternating current Level 2 charging power level. Comparable scaled charging protocols are also independently applied to individual cells at three different temperatures, 20 °C, 30 °C, and 40 °C, to perform a comparative analysis with the packs. Dominant cell-level aging modes were identified through incremental capacity analysis and compared with full packs to gain a clear understanding of additional key factors that affect pack aging. While the cell-level study showed a minor impact on performance due to direct current fast charging, the packs showed a significantly higher rate of capacity fade under similar charging protocols. This indicates that pack-level aging cannot be directly extrapolated from cell evaluation. With this being said, delayed fast charging, completing shortly before discharge, was found to have less of an impact on battery degradation than conventional alternating current Level 2 charging

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]
  1. Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1499640
Report Number(s):
INL/JOU-17-43278-Rev000
Journal ID: ISSN 0378-7753
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC07-05ID14517
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Power Sources
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 381; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0378-7753
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 - ENERGY STORAGE; Lithium ion battery; Electric Drive Vehicles; AC Level 2 charging; Direct current fast charging; Battery state of health

Citation Formats

Tanim, Tanvir R., Shirk, Matthew G., Bewley, Randy L., Dufek, Eric J., and Liaw, Bor Yann. Fast charge implications: Pack and cell analysis and comparison. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.01.091.
Tanim, Tanvir R., Shirk, Matthew G., Bewley, Randy L., Dufek, Eric J., & Liaw, Bor Yann. Fast charge implications: Pack and cell analysis and comparison. United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.01.091
Tanim, Tanvir R., Shirk, Matthew G., Bewley, Randy L., Dufek, Eric J., and Liaw, Bor Yann. Thu . "Fast charge implications: Pack and cell analysis and comparison". United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.01.091. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1499640.
@article{osti_1499640,
title = {Fast charge implications: Pack and cell analysis and comparison},
author = {Tanim, Tanvir R. and Shirk, Matthew G. and Bewley, Randy L. and Dufek, Eric J. and Liaw, Bor Yann},
abstractNote = {This study investigates the effect of 50-kW (about 2C) direct current fast charging on a full-size battery electric vehicle's battery pack in comparison to a pack exclusively charged at 3.3 kW, which is the common alternating current Level 2 charging power level. Comparable scaled charging protocols are also independently applied to individual cells at three different temperatures, 20 °C, 30 °C, and 40 °C, to perform a comparative analysis with the packs. Dominant cell-level aging modes were identified through incremental capacity analysis and compared with full packs to gain a clear understanding of additional key factors that affect pack aging. While the cell-level study showed a minor impact on performance due to direct current fast charging, the packs showed a significantly higher rate of capacity fade under similar charging protocols. This indicates that pack-level aging cannot be directly extrapolated from cell evaluation. With this being said, delayed fast charging, completing shortly before discharge, was found to have less of an impact on battery degradation than conventional alternating current Level 2 charging},
doi = {10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.01.091},
journal = {Journal of Power Sources},
number = C,
volume = 381,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {2}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 18 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Rapidly falling costs of battery packs for electric vehicles
journal, March 2015


Enabling fast charging – A battery technology gap assessment
journal, November 2017


Enabling fast charging – Infrastructure and economic considerations
journal, November 2017


Enabling fast charging – Vehicle considerations
journal, November 2017


Enabling fast charging – Battery thermal considerations
journal, November 2017


Study of the charging process of a LiCoO2-based Li-ion battery
journal, October 2006


Lithium Plating Behavior in Lithium-Ion Cells
conference, January 2010

  • Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Smart, Marshall C.
  • 216th ECS Meeting, ECS Transactions
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.3393860

In-Situ Detection of Lithium Plating Using High Precision Coulometry
journal, January 2015

  • Burns, J. C.; Stevens, D. A.; Dahn, J. R.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 162, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1149/2.0621506jes

Optimizing Areal Capacities through Understanding the Limitations of Lithium-Ion Electrodes
journal, November 2015

  • Gallagher, Kevin G.; Trask, Stephen E.; Bauer, Christoph
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 163, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1149/2.0321602jes

Effect of Fast Charging of Lithium-Ion Cells: Performance and Post-Test Results
conference, April 2016

  • Prezas, Panos D.; Somerville, L.; Jennings, P.
  • SAE 2016 World Congress and Exhibition, SAE Technical Paper Series
  • DOI: 10.4271/2016-01-1194

Quantification of bottlenecks to fast charging of lithium-ion-insertion cells for electric vehicles
journal, December 2014


Mathematical Modeling of the Lithium Deposition Overcharge Reaction in Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Carbon-Based Negative Electrodes
journal, January 1999

  • Arora, Pankaj
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 146, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.1392512

The study of electrochemical properties and lithium deposition of graphite at low temperature
journal, February 2012


Effect of Porosity, Thickness and Tortuosity on Capacity Fade of Anode
journal, January 2015

  • Suthar, Bharatkumar; Northrop, Paul W. C.; Rife, Derek
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 162, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1149/2.0061509jes

Synthesize battery degradation modes via a diagnostic and prognostic model
journal, December 2012


The effect of the charging protocol on the cycle life of a Li-ion battery
journal, October 2006


Fast charging technique for high power lithium iron phosphate batteries: A cycle life analysis
journal, October 2013


New charging strategy for lithium-ion batteries based on the integration of Taguchi method and state of charge estimation
journal, January 2015


Effects of Electric Vehicle Fast Charging on Battery Life and Vehicle Performance
conference, April 2015

  • Shirk, Matthew; Wishart, Jeffrey
  • SAE 2015 World Congress & Exhibition, SAE Technical Paper Series
  • DOI: 10.4271/2015-01-1190

Production caused variation in capacity aging trend and correlation to initial cell performance
journal, February 2014


Analysis of ageing inhomogeneities in lithium-ion battery systems
journal, October 2013


Lithium-ion cell-to-cell variation during battery electric vehicle operation
journal, November 2015


Aging formula for lithium ion batteries with solid electrolyte interphase layer growth
journal, October 2015


Cell degradation in commercial LiFePO4 cells with high-power and high-energy designs
journal, July 2014


Postmortem analysis of calendar-aged graphite/LiFePO4 cells
journal, August 2013


Analysis and prediction of the open circuit potential of lithium-ion cells
journal, October 2013


On the correlation between surface chemistry and performance of graphite negative electrodes for Li ion batteries
journal, September 1999


Smoothing and Differentiation of Data by Simplified Least Squares Procedures.
journal, July 1964

  • Savitzky, Abraham.; Golay, M. J. E.
  • Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 36, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1021/ac60214a047

Works referencing / citing this record:

Electrochemical Quantification of Lithium Plating: Challenges and Considerations
journal, January 2019

  • Tanim, Tanvir R.; Dufek, Eric J.; Dickerson, Charles C.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 166, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1149/2.1581912jes

Finding the ideal automotive battery concept: A model-based approach on cell selection, modularization and thermal management
journal, May 2019


Commercialization of Lithium Battery Technologies for Electric Vehicles
journal, June 2019

  • Zeng, Xiaoqiao; Li, Matthew; Abd El‐Hady, Deia
  • Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 9, Issue 27
  • DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201900161

Towards high rate Li metal anodes: enhanced performance at high current density in a superconcentrated ionic liquid
journal, January 2020

  • Periyapperuma, Kalani; Arca, Elisabetta; Harvey, Steve
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 8, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta12004a

Extreme Fast Charge Challenges for Lithium-Ion Battery: Variability and Positive Electrode Issues
journal, January 2019

  • Tanim, Tanvir R.; Dufek, Eric J.; Evans, Michael
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 166, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1149/2.0731910jes

Challenges of Fast Charging for Electric Vehicles and the Role of Red Phosphorous as Anode Material: Review
journal, October 2019