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Title: Controlling the formation and stability of ultra-thin nickel silicides - An alloying strategy for preventing agglomeration

Abstract

The electrical contact of the source and drain regions in state-of-the-art CMOS transistors is nowadays facilitated through NiSi, which is often alloyed with Pt in order to avoid morphological agglomeration of the silicide film. However, the solid-state reaction between as-deposited Ni and the Si substrate exhibits a peculiar change for as-deposited Ni films thinner than a critical thickness of tc = 5 nm. Whereas thicker films form polycrystalline NiSi upon annealing above 450 °C , thinner films form epitaxial NiSi2 films that exhibit a high resistance toward agglomeration. For industrial applications, it is therefore of utmost importance to assess the critical thickness with high certainty and find novel methodologies to either increase or decrease its value, depending on the aimed silicide formation. This paper investigates Ni films between 0 and 15 nm initial thickness by use of “thickness gradients,” which provide semi-continuous information on silicide formation and stability as a function of as-deposited layer thickness. The alloying of these Ni layers with 10% Al, Co, Ge, Pd, or Pt renders a significant change in the phase sequence as a function of thickness and dependent on the alloying element. The addition of these ternary impurities therefore changes the critical thickness tc.more » Furthermore, the results are discussed in the framework of classical nucleation theory.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [3]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [4];  [4];  [1]
  1. Ghent Univ., Gent (Belgium)
  2. KU Leuven (Belgium)
  3. Univ. of Antwerp (Belgium)
  4. IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Scientific User Facilities Division
OSTI Identifier:
1499543
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1422009
Report Number(s):
BNL-209547-2018-JACI
Journal ID: ISSN 0021-8979
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-98CH10886; SC0012704
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Applied Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 123; Journal Issue: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 0021-8979
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Geenen, F. A., van Stiphout, K., Nanakoudis, A., Bals, S., Vantomme, A., Jordan-Sweet, J., Lavoie, C., and Detavernier, Christophe. Controlling the formation and stability of ultra-thin nickel silicides - An alloying strategy for preventing agglomeration. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1063/1.5009641.
Geenen, F. A., van Stiphout, K., Nanakoudis, A., Bals, S., Vantomme, A., Jordan-Sweet, J., Lavoie, C., & Detavernier, Christophe. Controlling the formation and stability of ultra-thin nickel silicides - An alloying strategy for preventing agglomeration. United States. doi:10.1063/1.5009641.
Geenen, F. A., van Stiphout, K., Nanakoudis, A., Bals, S., Vantomme, A., Jordan-Sweet, J., Lavoie, C., and Detavernier, Christophe. Wed . "Controlling the formation and stability of ultra-thin nickel silicides - An alloying strategy for preventing agglomeration". United States. doi:10.1063/1.5009641. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1499543.
@article{osti_1499543,
title = {Controlling the formation and stability of ultra-thin nickel silicides - An alloying strategy for preventing agglomeration},
author = {Geenen, F. A. and van Stiphout, K. and Nanakoudis, A. and Bals, S. and Vantomme, A. and Jordan-Sweet, J. and Lavoie, C. and Detavernier, Christophe},
abstractNote = {The electrical contact of the source and drain regions in state-of-the-art CMOS transistors is nowadays facilitated through NiSi, which is often alloyed with Pt in order to avoid morphological agglomeration of the silicide film. However, the solid-state reaction between as-deposited Ni and the Si substrate exhibits a peculiar change for as-deposited Ni films thinner than a critical thickness of tc = 5 nm. Whereas thicker films form polycrystalline NiSi upon annealing above 450 °C , thinner films form epitaxial NiSi2 films that exhibit a high resistance toward agglomeration. For industrial applications, it is therefore of utmost importance to assess the critical thickness with high certainty and find novel methodologies to either increase or decrease its value, depending on the aimed silicide formation. This paper investigates Ni films between 0 and 15 nm initial thickness by use of “thickness gradients,” which provide semi-continuous information on silicide formation and stability as a function of as-deposited layer thickness. The alloying of these Ni layers with 10% Al, Co, Ge, Pd, or Pt renders a significant change in the phase sequence as a function of thickness and dependent on the alloying element. The addition of these ternary impurities therefore changes the critical thickness tc. Furthermore, the results are discussed in the framework of classical nucleation theory.},
doi = {10.1063/1.5009641},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = 7,
volume = 123,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {2}
}

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