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Title: Invasion ecology of wild pigs (Sus scrofa) in Florida, USA: the role of humans in the expansion and colonization of an invasive wild ungulate

Abstract

Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are the most widely distributed invasive wild ungulate in the United States, yet the factors that influence wild pig dispersal and colonization at the regional level are poorly understood. Our objective was to use a population genetic approach to describe patterns of dispersal and colonization among populations to gain a greater understanding of the invasion process contributing to the expansion of this species. We used 52 microsatellite loci to produce individual genotypes for 482 swine sampled at 39 locations between 2014 and 2016. Our data revealed the existence of genetically distinct subpopulations (F ST = 0.1170, p < 0.05). We found evidence of both fine-scale subdivision among the sampling locations, as well as evidence of long term genetic isolation. Several locations exhibited significant admixture (interbreeding) suggesting frequent mixing of individuals among locations; up to 14% of animals were immigrants from other populations. This pattern of admixture suggested successive rounds of human-assisted translocation and subsequent expansion across Florida. We also found evidence of genetically distinct populations that were isolated from nearby populations, suggesting recent introduction by humans. In addition, proximity to wild pig holding facilities was associated with higher migration rates and admixture, likely due to themore » escape or release of animals. Taken together, these results suggest that human-assisted movement plays a major role in the ecology and rapid population growth of wild pigs in Florida.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). School of Natural Resources and Environment. Dept. of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation
  2. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation
  3. USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Fort Collins, CO (United States). Wildlife Services. National Wildlife Research Center
  4. Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab.
  5. USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Gainesville, FL (United States). Wildlife Services
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Fort Collins, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23); USDA National Inst. of Food and Agriculture (NIFA)
OSTI Identifier:
1499114
Grant/Contract Number:  
FC09-07SR22506; FLA-WEC-005166
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Biological Invasions
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 20; Journal Issue: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 1387-3547
Publisher:
Springer Nature
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; invasion ecology; Sus scrofa; Florida; human-assisted movement; interbreeding; immigration

Citation Formats

Hernández, Felipe A., Parker, Brandon M., Pylant, Cortney L., Smyser, Timothy J., Piaggio, Antoinette J., Lance, Stacey L., Milleson, Michael P., Austin, James D., and Wisely, Samantha M. Invasion ecology of wild pigs (Sus scrofa) in Florida, USA: the role of humans in the expansion and colonization of an invasive wild ungulate. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1007/s10530-018-1667-6.
Hernández, Felipe A., Parker, Brandon M., Pylant, Cortney L., Smyser, Timothy J., Piaggio, Antoinette J., Lance, Stacey L., Milleson, Michael P., Austin, James D., & Wisely, Samantha M. Invasion ecology of wild pigs (Sus scrofa) in Florida, USA: the role of humans in the expansion and colonization of an invasive wild ungulate. United States. doi:10.1007/s10530-018-1667-6.
Hernández, Felipe A., Parker, Brandon M., Pylant, Cortney L., Smyser, Timothy J., Piaggio, Antoinette J., Lance, Stacey L., Milleson, Michael P., Austin, James D., and Wisely, Samantha M. Sat . "Invasion ecology of wild pigs (Sus scrofa) in Florida, USA: the role of humans in the expansion and colonization of an invasive wild ungulate". United States. doi:10.1007/s10530-018-1667-6. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1499114.
@article{osti_1499114,
title = {Invasion ecology of wild pigs (Sus scrofa) in Florida, USA: the role of humans in the expansion and colonization of an invasive wild ungulate},
author = {Hernández, Felipe A. and Parker, Brandon M. and Pylant, Cortney L. and Smyser, Timothy J. and Piaggio, Antoinette J. and Lance, Stacey L. and Milleson, Michael P. and Austin, James D. and Wisely, Samantha M.},
abstractNote = {Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are the most widely distributed invasive wild ungulate in the United States, yet the factors that influence wild pig dispersal and colonization at the regional level are poorly understood. Our objective was to use a population genetic approach to describe patterns of dispersal and colonization among populations to gain a greater understanding of the invasion process contributing to the expansion of this species. We used 52 microsatellite loci to produce individual genotypes for 482 swine sampled at 39 locations between 2014 and 2016. Our data revealed the existence of genetically distinct subpopulations (F ST = 0.1170, p < 0.05). We found evidence of both fine-scale subdivision among the sampling locations, as well as evidence of long term genetic isolation. Several locations exhibited significant admixture (interbreeding) suggesting frequent mixing of individuals among locations; up to 14% of animals were immigrants from other populations. This pattern of admixture suggested successive rounds of human-assisted translocation and subsequent expansion across Florida. We also found evidence of genetically distinct populations that were isolated from nearby populations, suggesting recent introduction by humans. In addition, proximity to wild pig holding facilities was associated with higher migration rates and admixture, likely due to the escape or release of animals. Taken together, these results suggest that human-assisted movement plays a major role in the ecology and rapid population growth of wild pigs in Florida.},
doi = {10.1007/s10530-018-1667-6},
journal = {Biological Invasions},
number = 7,
volume = 20,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {1}
}

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