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Title: Nanoscale graphene/Ge wigglers as building blocks for THz sources

Abstract

We demonstrate that wrinkled graphene on Ge with nanoscale period and amplitude holds the potential to generate cyclotron-like radiation in the THz range of the electromagnetic spectrum. We show nanoscale graphene wigglers fabricated by release and transfer of atomically thin sheets to one-dimensional Ge gratings. We present a simple time of flight and interference model to calculate the radiated frequency and output power for the fabricated devices. We establish, theoretically, that an output power of ~ 0.1-7 mW can be obtained from graphene/Ge wigglers with period not exceeding 85 nm, and amplitude-to-period ratio in the range of 1.4 to 10.

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [1];  [3];  [1]
  1. Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Center for High Technology Materials
  2. Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Center for High Technology Materials; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
  3. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); Air Force Office for Scientific Research (AFOSR) (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
1499106
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1421246
Grant/Contract Number:  
[SC0016007; FA9550-12-1-0049]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
AIP Advances
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 7; Journal Issue: 11]; Journal ID: ISSN 2158-3226
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; graphene; oxides; semiconductors; electromagnetic spectrum; electronic transport; resistivity measurements; plasmonics; terahertz radiation sources; electrical properties and parameters; cyclotrons

Citation Formats

Anwar, F., Carlos, C. R., Saraswat, V., Mangu, V. S., Arnold, M. S., and Cavallo, F. Nanoscale graphene/Ge wigglers as building blocks for THz sources. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4986513.
Anwar, F., Carlos, C. R., Saraswat, V., Mangu, V. S., Arnold, M. S., & Cavallo, F. Nanoscale graphene/Ge wigglers as building blocks for THz sources. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4986513.
Anwar, F., Carlos, C. R., Saraswat, V., Mangu, V. S., Arnold, M. S., and Cavallo, F. Mon . "Nanoscale graphene/Ge wigglers as building blocks for THz sources". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4986513. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1499106.
@article{osti_1499106,
title = {Nanoscale graphene/Ge wigglers as building blocks for THz sources},
author = {Anwar, F. and Carlos, C. R. and Saraswat, V. and Mangu, V. S. and Arnold, M. S. and Cavallo, F.},
abstractNote = {We demonstrate that wrinkled graphene on Ge with nanoscale period and amplitude holds the potential to generate cyclotron-like radiation in the THz range of the electromagnetic spectrum. We show nanoscale graphene wigglers fabricated by release and transfer of atomically thin sheets to one-dimensional Ge gratings. We present a simple time of flight and interference model to calculate the radiated frequency and output power for the fabricated devices. We establish, theoretically, that an output power of ~ 0.1-7 mW can be obtained from graphene/Ge wigglers with period not exceeding 85 nm, and amplitude-to-period ratio in the range of 1.4 to 10.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4986513},
journal = {AIP Advances},
number = [11],
volume = [7],
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {11}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Figures / Tables:

FIG. 1. FIG. 1. : Graphene on Ge mechanical wigglers: fabrication and characterization. (a) CVD-grown graphene was released from its original growth substrate via selective removal of the Cu support in FeCl3:HCl:Ethanol. A PMMA film served as support during release. (b) Upon complete removal of the Cu substrate the PMMA/graphene combination wasmore » rinsed in deionized water and transferred to the patterned Ge substrate. (c) PMMA removal by vacuum annealing at 250C in Ar yielded graphene/Ge wiggler (c). Off-axis scanning electron micrographs (SEMs) of 1D Ge gratings with periods L∼150 nm (d) and L∼90 nm (e). Graphene/Ge mechanical wigglers fabricated by transfer of 1x1 cm2 graphene on the Ge patterns with L∼150 nm (f) and L∼90 nm (g). (h) Current-voltage characteristics acquired from planar and corrugated graphene/Ge. Blue and gray shaded areas identify the ranges of current-voltage characteristics obtained from 5 devices which embedded planar and wiggled graphene, respectively. Measurements were performed in a four-probe configuration using a Hall bar geometry. The inset is a top-view optical image of two Hall bars embedding planar (left) and wrinkled graphene (right). Current was forced between terminals 1 and 4 and voltage was probed between terminals 2 and 3 (or 5 and 6). Contact pads were fabricated using Cr/Au.« less

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    Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.