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Title: Computational Design of Gradient Paths in Additively Manufactured Functionally Graded Materials

Abstract

We report additive manufacturing (AM) has enabled the creation of a near infinite set of functionally graded materials (FGMs). One limitation on the manufacturability and usefulness of these materials is the presence of undesirable phases along the gradient path. For example, such phases may increase brittleness, diminish corrosion resistance, or severely compromise the printability of the part altogether. In the current work, a design methodology is proposed to plan an FGM gradient path for any number of elements that avoids undesirable phases at a range of temperatures. Gradient paths can also be optimized for a cost function. A case study is shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the methodology in the Fe–Ni–Cr system. Paths were successfully planned from 316 L Stainless Steel (316 L SS) to pure Cr that either minimize path length or maximize separation from undesirable phases. Examinations on the stochastic variability, parameter dependency, and computational efficiency of the method are also presented. Finally, several avenues of future research are proposed that could improve the manufacturability, utility, and performance of FGMs through gradient path design.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [1]
  1. Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)
  2. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); NSF Funded from Graduate School
OSTI Identifier:
1496993
Report Number(s):
SAND-2018-5690J
Journal ID: ISSN 1050-0472; 672201
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC04-94AL85000; NA0003525
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Mechanical Design
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 140; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 1050-0472
Publisher:
ASME
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 42 ENGINEERING; Algorithms; Design; Functionally graded materials; Path planning; Additive manufacturing; Temperature; Manufacturing

Citation Formats

Kirk, Tanner, Galvan, Edgar, Malak, Richard, and Arroyave, Raymundo. Computational Design of Gradient Paths in Additively Manufactured Functionally Graded Materials. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1115/1.4040816.
Kirk, Tanner, Galvan, Edgar, Malak, Richard, & Arroyave, Raymundo. Computational Design of Gradient Paths in Additively Manufactured Functionally Graded Materials. United States. doi:10.1115/1.4040816.
Kirk, Tanner, Galvan, Edgar, Malak, Richard, and Arroyave, Raymundo. Fri . "Computational Design of Gradient Paths in Additively Manufactured Functionally Graded Materials". United States. doi:10.1115/1.4040816. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1496993.
@article{osti_1496993,
title = {Computational Design of Gradient Paths in Additively Manufactured Functionally Graded Materials},
author = {Kirk, Tanner and Galvan, Edgar and Malak, Richard and Arroyave, Raymundo},
abstractNote = {We report additive manufacturing (AM) has enabled the creation of a near infinite set of functionally graded materials (FGMs). One limitation on the manufacturability and usefulness of these materials is the presence of undesirable phases along the gradient path. For example, such phases may increase brittleness, diminish corrosion resistance, or severely compromise the printability of the part altogether. In the current work, a design methodology is proposed to plan an FGM gradient path for any number of elements that avoids undesirable phases at a range of temperatures. Gradient paths can also be optimized for a cost function. A case study is shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the methodology in the Fe–Ni–Cr system. Paths were successfully planned from 316 L Stainless Steel (316 L SS) to pure Cr that either minimize path length or maximize separation from undesirable phases. Examinations on the stochastic variability, parameter dependency, and computational efficiency of the method are also presented. Finally, several avenues of future research are proposed that could improve the manufacturability, utility, and performance of FGMs through gradient path design.},
doi = {10.1115/1.4040816},
journal = {Journal of Mechanical Design},
number = 11,
volume = 140,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {9}
}

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