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Title: Search for invisible modes of nucleon decay in water with the SNO+ detector

Abstract

This paper reports results from a search for nucleon decay through invisible modes, where no visible energy is directly deposited during the decay itself, during the initial water phase of $$\mathrm{SNO}+$$. However, such decays within the oxygen nucleus would produce an excited daughter that would subsequently deexcite, often emitting detectable gamma rays. A search for such gamma rays yields limits of $$2.5\times{}{10}^{29}\text{ }\text{ }\mathrm{y}$$ at 90% Bayesian credibility level (with a prior uniform in rate) for the partial lifetime of the neutron, and $$3.6\times{}{10}^{29}\text{ }\text{ }\mathrm{y}$$ for the partial lifetime of the proton, the latter a 70% improvement on the previous limit from SNO. We also present partial lifetime limits for invisible dinucleon modes of $$1.3\times{}{10}^{28}\text{ }\text{ }\mathrm{y}$$ for $nn$, $$2.6\times{}{10}^{28}\text{ }\text{ }\mathrm{y}$$ for $pn$ and $$4.7\times{}{10}^{28}\text{ }\text{ }\mathrm{y}$$ for $pp$, an improvement over existing limits by close to 3 orders of magnitude for the latter two.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP) (SC-26); USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25); USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
Contributing Org.:
The SNO+ Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1495231
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1501563
Report Number(s):
BNL-211418-2019-JAAM
Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0012704
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review D
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 99; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; 73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; invisible decays; particle decays; rare decays; Cherenkov detectors; neutrino detectors

Citation Formats

Anderson, M., Andringa, S., Arushanova, E., Asahi, S., Askins, M., Auty, D. J., Back, A. R., Barnard, Z., Barros, N., Bartlett, D., Barão, F., Bayes, R., Beier, E. W., Bialek, A., Biller, S. D., Blucher, E., Bonventre, R., Boulay, M., Braid, D., Caden, E., Callaghan, E. J., Caravaca, J., Carvalho, J., Cavalli, L., Chauhan, D., Chen, M., Chkvorets, O., Clark, K. J., Cleveland, B., Connors, C., Coulter, I. T., Cressy, D., Dai, X., Darrach, C., Davis-Purcell, B., Depatie, M. M., Descamps, F., Di Lodovico, F., Duhaime, N., Duncan, F., Dunger, J., Falk, E., Fatemighomi, N., Fischer, V., Fletcher, E., Ford, R., Gagnon, N., Gilje, K., Gorel, P., Graham, K., Grant, C., Grove, J., Grullon, S., Guillian, E., Hallin, A. L., Hallman, D., Hans, S., Hartnell, J., Harvey, P., Hedayatipour, M., Heintzelman, W. J., Heise, J., Helmer, R. L., Hernández-Hernández, J. L., Hreljac, B., Hu, J., Iida, T., Inácio, A. S., Jackson, C. M., Jelley, N. A., Jillings, C. J., Jones, C., Jones, P. G., Kamdin, K., Kaptanoglu, T., Kaspar, J., Keeter, K., Kefelian, C., Khaghani, P., Kippenbrock, L., Klein, J. R., Knapik, R., Kofron, J., Kormos, L. L., Krar, B., Kraus, C., Krauss, C. B., Kroupova, T., Labe, K., Lam, I., Lan, C., Land, B. J., Lane, R., Langrock, S., LaTorre, A., Lawson, I., Lebanowski, L., Lefeuvre, G. M., Leming, E. J., Li, A., Lidgard, J., Liggins, B., Liu, X., Liu, Y., Lozza, V., Luo, M., Maguire, S., Maio, A., Majumdar, K., Manecki, S., Maneira, J., Martin, R. D., Marzec, E., Mastbaum, A., McCauley, N., McDonald, A. B., McMillan, J. E., Mekarski, P., Meyer, M., Miller, C., Mlejnek, M., Mony, E., Morton-Blake, I., Mottram, M. J., Nae, S., Nirkko, M., Novikov, V., O’Keeffe, H. M., O’Sullivan, E., Orebi Gann, G. D., Parnell, M. J., Paton, J., Peeters, S. J. M., Pershing, T., Petriw, Z., Pickard, L., Pracsovics, D., Prior, G., Prouty, J. C., Quirk, S., Reichold, A., Richardson, R., Rigan, M., Robertson, A., Rose, J., Rosero, R., Rost, P. M., Rumleskie, J., Schumaker, M. A., Schwendener, M. H., Scislowski, D., Secrest, J., Seddighin, M., Segui, L., Seibert, S., Semenec, I., Shantz, T., Shokair, T. M., Sibley, L., Sinclair, J. R., Singh, K., Skensved, P., Sonley, T., Stainforth, R., Strait, M., Stringer, M. I., Svoboda, R., Sörensen, A., Tam, B., Tatar, J., Tian, L., Tolich, N., Tseng, J., Tseung, H. W. C., Turner, E., Van Berg, R., Veinot, J. G. C., Virtue, C. J., von Krosigk, B., Vázquez-Jáuregui, E., Walker, J. M. G., Walker, M., Wang, J., Wasalski, O., Waterfield, J., Weigand, J. J., White, R. F., Wilson, J. R., Winchester, T. J., Woosaree, P., Wright, A., Yanez, J. P., Yeh, M., Zhao, T., Zuber, K., and Zummo, A.. Search for invisible modes of nucleon decay in water with the SNO+ detector. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.99.032008.
Anderson, M., Andringa, S., Arushanova, E., Asahi, S., Askins, M., Auty, D. J., Back, A. R., Barnard, Z., Barros, N., Bartlett, D., Barão, F., Bayes, R., Beier, E. W., Bialek, A., Biller, S. D., Blucher, E., Bonventre, R., Boulay, M., Braid, D., Caden, E., Callaghan, E. J., Caravaca, J., Carvalho, J., Cavalli, L., Chauhan, D., Chen, M., Chkvorets, O., Clark, K. J., Cleveland, B., Connors, C., Coulter, I. T., Cressy, D., Dai, X., Darrach, C., Davis-Purcell, B., Depatie, M. M., Descamps, F., Di Lodovico, F., Duhaime, N., Duncan, F., Dunger, J., Falk, E., Fatemighomi, N., Fischer, V., Fletcher, E., Ford, R., Gagnon, N., Gilje, K., Gorel, P., Graham, K., Grant, C., Grove, J., Grullon, S., Guillian, E., Hallin, A. L., Hallman, D., Hans, S., Hartnell, J., Harvey, P., Hedayatipour, M., Heintzelman, W. J., Heise, J., Helmer, R. L., Hernández-Hernández, J. L., Hreljac, B., Hu, J., Iida, T., Inácio, A. S., Jackson, C. M., Jelley, N. A., Jillings, C. J., Jones, C., Jones, P. G., Kamdin, K., Kaptanoglu, T., Kaspar, J., Keeter, K., Kefelian, C., Khaghani, P., Kippenbrock, L., Klein, J. R., Knapik, R., Kofron, J., Kormos, L. L., Krar, B., Kraus, C., Krauss, C. B., Kroupova, T., Labe, K., Lam, I., Lan, C., Land, B. J., Lane, R., Langrock, S., LaTorre, A., Lawson, I., Lebanowski, L., Lefeuvre, G. M., Leming, E. J., Li, A., Lidgard, J., Liggins, B., Liu, X., Liu, Y., Lozza, V., Luo, M., Maguire, S., Maio, A., Majumdar, K., Manecki, S., Maneira, J., Martin, R. D., Marzec, E., Mastbaum, A., McCauley, N., McDonald, A. B., McMillan, J. E., Mekarski, P., Meyer, M., Miller, C., Mlejnek, M., Mony, E., Morton-Blake, I., Mottram, M. J., Nae, S., Nirkko, M., Novikov, V., O’Keeffe, H. M., O’Sullivan, E., Orebi Gann, G. D., Parnell, M. J., Paton, J., Peeters, S. J. M., Pershing, T., Petriw, Z., Pickard, L., Pracsovics, D., Prior, G., Prouty, J. C., Quirk, S., Reichold, A., Richardson, R., Rigan, M., Robertson, A., Rose, J., Rosero, R., Rost, P. M., Rumleskie, J., Schumaker, M. A., Schwendener, M. H., Scislowski, D., Secrest, J., Seddighin, M., Segui, L., Seibert, S., Semenec, I., Shantz, T., Shokair, T. M., Sibley, L., Sinclair, J. R., Singh, K., Skensved, P., Sonley, T., Stainforth, R., Strait, M., Stringer, M. I., Svoboda, R., Sörensen, A., Tam, B., Tatar, J., Tian, L., Tolich, N., Tseng, J., Tseung, H. W. C., Turner, E., Van Berg, R., Veinot, J. G. C., Virtue, C. J., von Krosigk, B., Vázquez-Jáuregui, E., Walker, J. M. G., Walker, M., Wang, J., Wasalski, O., Waterfield, J., Weigand, J. J., White, R. F., Wilson, J. R., Winchester, T. J., Woosaree, P., Wright, A., Yanez, J. P., Yeh, M., Zhao, T., Zuber, K., & Zummo, A.. Search for invisible modes of nucleon decay in water with the SNO+ detector. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.99.032008.
Anderson, M., Andringa, S., Arushanova, E., Asahi, S., Askins, M., Auty, D. J., Back, A. R., Barnard, Z., Barros, N., Bartlett, D., Barão, F., Bayes, R., Beier, E. W., Bialek, A., Biller, S. D., Blucher, E., Bonventre, R., Boulay, M., Braid, D., Caden, E., Callaghan, E. J., Caravaca, J., Carvalho, J., Cavalli, L., Chauhan, D., Chen, M., Chkvorets, O., Clark, K. J., Cleveland, B., Connors, C., Coulter, I. T., Cressy, D., Dai, X., Darrach, C., Davis-Purcell, B., Depatie, M. M., Descamps, F., Di Lodovico, F., Duhaime, N., Duncan, F., Dunger, J., Falk, E., Fatemighomi, N., Fischer, V., Fletcher, E., Ford, R., Gagnon, N., Gilje, K., Gorel, P., Graham, K., Grant, C., Grove, J., Grullon, S., Guillian, E., Hallin, A. L., Hallman, D., Hans, S., Hartnell, J., Harvey, P., Hedayatipour, M., Heintzelman, W. J., Heise, J., Helmer, R. L., Hernández-Hernández, J. L., Hreljac, B., Hu, J., Iida, T., Inácio, A. S., Jackson, C. M., Jelley, N. A., Jillings, C. J., Jones, C., Jones, P. G., Kamdin, K., Kaptanoglu, T., Kaspar, J., Keeter, K., Kefelian, C., Khaghani, P., Kippenbrock, L., Klein, J. R., Knapik, R., Kofron, J., Kormos, L. L., Krar, B., Kraus, C., Krauss, C. B., Kroupova, T., Labe, K., Lam, I., Lan, C., Land, B. J., Lane, R., Langrock, S., LaTorre, A., Lawson, I., Lebanowski, L., Lefeuvre, G. M., Leming, E. J., Li, A., Lidgard, J., Liggins, B., Liu, X., Liu, Y., Lozza, V., Luo, M., Maguire, S., Maio, A., Majumdar, K., Manecki, S., Maneira, J., Martin, R. D., Marzec, E., Mastbaum, A., McCauley, N., McDonald, A. B., McMillan, J. E., Mekarski, P., Meyer, M., Miller, C., Mlejnek, M., Mony, E., Morton-Blake, I., Mottram, M. J., Nae, S., Nirkko, M., Novikov, V., O’Keeffe, H. M., O’Sullivan, E., Orebi Gann, G. D., Parnell, M. J., Paton, J., Peeters, S. J. M., Pershing, T., Petriw, Z., Pickard, L., Pracsovics, D., Prior, G., Prouty, J. C., Quirk, S., Reichold, A., Richardson, R., Rigan, M., Robertson, A., Rose, J., Rosero, R., Rost, P. M., Rumleskie, J., Schumaker, M. A., Schwendener, M. H., Scislowski, D., Secrest, J., Seddighin, M., Segui, L., Seibert, S., Semenec, I., Shantz, T., Shokair, T. M., Sibley, L., Sinclair, J. R., Singh, K., Skensved, P., Sonley, T., Stainforth, R., Strait, M., Stringer, M. I., Svoboda, R., Sörensen, A., Tam, B., Tatar, J., Tian, L., Tolich, N., Tseng, J., Tseung, H. W. C., Turner, E., Van Berg, R., Veinot, J. G. C., Virtue, C. J., von Krosigk, B., Vázquez-Jáuregui, E., Walker, J. M. G., Walker, M., Wang, J., Wasalski, O., Waterfield, J., Weigand, J. J., White, R. F., Wilson, J. R., Winchester, T. J., Woosaree, P., Wright, A., Yanez, J. P., Yeh, M., Zhao, T., Zuber, K., and Zummo, A.. Wed . "Search for invisible modes of nucleon decay in water with the SNO+ detector". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.99.032008.
@article{osti_1495231,
title = {Search for invisible modes of nucleon decay in water with the SNO+ detector},
author = {Anderson, M. and Andringa, S. and Arushanova, E. and Asahi, S. and Askins, M. and Auty, D. J. and Back, A. R. and Barnard, Z. and Barros, N. and Bartlett, D. and Barão, F. and Bayes, R. and Beier, E. W. and Bialek, A. and Biller, S. D. and Blucher, E. and Bonventre, R. and Boulay, M. and Braid, D. and Caden, E. and Callaghan, E. J. and Caravaca, J. and Carvalho, J. and Cavalli, L. and Chauhan, D. and Chen, M. and Chkvorets, O. and Clark, K. J. and Cleveland, B. and Connors, C. and Coulter, I. T. and Cressy, D. and Dai, X. and Darrach, C. and Davis-Purcell, B. and Depatie, M. M. and Descamps, F. and Di Lodovico, F. and Duhaime, N. and Duncan, F. and Dunger, J. and Falk, E. and Fatemighomi, N. and Fischer, V. and Fletcher, E. and Ford, R. and Gagnon, N. and Gilje, K. and Gorel, P. and Graham, K. and Grant, C. and Grove, J. and Grullon, S. and Guillian, E. and Hallin, A. L. and Hallman, D. and Hans, S. and Hartnell, J. and Harvey, P. and Hedayatipour, M. and Heintzelman, W. J. and Heise, J. and Helmer, R. L. and Hernández-Hernández, J. L. and Hreljac, B. and Hu, J. and Iida, T. and Inácio, A. S. and Jackson, C. M. and Jelley, N. A. and Jillings, C. J. and Jones, C. and Jones, P. G. and Kamdin, K. and Kaptanoglu, T. and Kaspar, J. and Keeter, K. and Kefelian, C. and Khaghani, P. and Kippenbrock, L. and Klein, J. R. and Knapik, R. and Kofron, J. and Kormos, L. L. and Krar, B. and Kraus, C. and Krauss, C. B. and Kroupova, T. and Labe, K. and Lam, I. and Lan, C. and Land, B. J. and Lane, R. and Langrock, S. and LaTorre, A. and Lawson, I. and Lebanowski, L. and Lefeuvre, G. M. and Leming, E. J. and Li, A. and Lidgard, J. and Liggins, B. and Liu, X. and Liu, Y. and Lozza, V. and Luo, M. and Maguire, S. and Maio, A. and Majumdar, K. and Manecki, S. and Maneira, J. and Martin, R. D. and Marzec, E. and Mastbaum, A. and McCauley, N. and McDonald, A. B. and McMillan, J. E. and Mekarski, P. and Meyer, M. and Miller, C. and Mlejnek, M. and Mony, E. and Morton-Blake, I. and Mottram, M. J. and Nae, S. and Nirkko, M. and Novikov, V. and O’Keeffe, H. M. and O’Sullivan, E. and Orebi Gann, G. D. and Parnell, M. J. and Paton, J. and Peeters, S. J. M. and Pershing, T. and Petriw, Z. and Pickard, L. and Pracsovics, D. and Prior, G. and Prouty, J. C. and Quirk, S. and Reichold, A. and Richardson, R. and Rigan, M. and Robertson, A. and Rose, J. and Rosero, R. and Rost, P. M. and Rumleskie, J. and Schumaker, M. A. and Schwendener, M. H. and Scislowski, D. and Secrest, J. and Seddighin, M. and Segui, L. and Seibert, S. and Semenec, I. and Shantz, T. and Shokair, T. M. and Sibley, L. and Sinclair, J. R. and Singh, K. and Skensved, P. and Sonley, T. and Stainforth, R. and Strait, M. and Stringer, M. I. and Svoboda, R. and Sörensen, A. and Tam, B. and Tatar, J. and Tian, L. and Tolich, N. and Tseng, J. and Tseung, H. W. C. and Turner, E. and Van Berg, R. and Veinot, J. G. C. and Virtue, C. J. and von Krosigk, B. and Vázquez-Jáuregui, E. and Walker, J. M. G. and Walker, M. and Wang, J. and Wasalski, O. and Waterfield, J. and Weigand, J. J. and White, R. F. and Wilson, J. R. and Winchester, T. J. and Woosaree, P. and Wright, A. and Yanez, J. P. and Yeh, M. and Zhao, T. and Zuber, K. and Zummo, A.},
abstractNote = {This paper reports results from a search for nucleon decay through invisible modes, where no visible energy is directly deposited during the decay itself, during the initial water phase of $\mathrm{SNO}+$. However, such decays within the oxygen nucleus would produce an excited daughter that would subsequently deexcite, often emitting detectable gamma rays. A search for such gamma rays yields limits of $2.5\times{}{10}^{29}\text{ }\text{ }\mathrm{y}$ at 90% Bayesian credibility level (with a prior uniform in rate) for the partial lifetime of the neutron, and $3.6\times{}{10}^{29}\text{ }\text{ }\mathrm{y}$ for the partial lifetime of the proton, the latter a 70% improvement on the previous limit from SNO. We also present partial lifetime limits for invisible dinucleon modes of $1.3\times{}{10}^{28}\text{ }\text{ }\mathrm{y}$ for $nn$, $2.6\times{}{10}^{28}\text{ }\text{ }\mathrm{y}$ for $pn$ and $4.7\times{}{10}^{28}\text{ }\text{ }\mathrm{y}$ for $pp$, an improvement over existing limits by close to 3 orders of magnitude for the latter two.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.99.032008},
journal = {Physical Review D},
number = 3,
volume = 99,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {2}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.99.032008

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