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Title: Coated particle fuel: Historical perspectives and current progress

Abstract

We report that coated particle fuel concepts date back some 60 years, and have evolved significantly from the relatively primitive pyrocarbon-coated kernels envisioned by the first pioneers. Improvements in particle design, coating layer properties, and kernel composition have produced the modern tristructural isotropic (TRISO) particle, capable of low statistical coating failure fractions and good fission product retention under extremely severe conditions, including temperatures of 1600 °C for hundreds of hours. The fuel constitutes one of the key enabling technologies for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, allowing coolant outlet temperatures approaching 1000 °C and contributing to enhanced reactor safety due to the hardiness of the particles. TRISO fuel development has taken place in a number of countries worldwide, and several fuel qualification programs are currently in progress. Here, we discuss the unique history of particle fuel development and some key technology advances, concluding with some of the latest progress in UO 2 and UCO TRISO fuel qualification.

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3]
  1. Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
  2. Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)
  3. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE)
OSTI Identifier:
1494898
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Nuclear Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 515; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0022-3115
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Coated particle fuel; Tristructural isotropic; TRISO; High temperature gas cooled reactor; HTGR

Citation Formats

Demkowicz, Paul A., Liu, Bing, and Hunn, John D. Coated particle fuel: Historical perspectives and current progress. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2018.09.044.
Demkowicz, Paul A., Liu, Bing, & Hunn, John D. Coated particle fuel: Historical perspectives and current progress. United States. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2018.09.044.
Demkowicz, Paul A., Liu, Bing, and Hunn, John D. Sat . "Coated particle fuel: Historical perspectives and current progress". United States. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2018.09.044. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1494898.
@article{osti_1494898,
title = {Coated particle fuel: Historical perspectives and current progress},
author = {Demkowicz, Paul A. and Liu, Bing and Hunn, John D.},
abstractNote = {We report that coated particle fuel concepts date back some 60 years, and have evolved significantly from the relatively primitive pyrocarbon-coated kernels envisioned by the first pioneers. Improvements in particle design, coating layer properties, and kernel composition have produced the modern tristructural isotropic (TRISO) particle, capable of low statistical coating failure fractions and good fission product retention under extremely severe conditions, including temperatures of 1600 °C for hundreds of hours. The fuel constitutes one of the key enabling technologies for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, allowing coolant outlet temperatures approaching 1000 °C and contributing to enhanced reactor safety due to the hardiness of the particles. TRISO fuel development has taken place in a number of countries worldwide, and several fuel qualification programs are currently in progress. Here, we discuss the unique history of particle fuel development and some key technology advances, concluding with some of the latest progress in UO2 and UCO TRISO fuel qualification.},
doi = {10.1016/j.jnucmat.2018.09.044},
journal = {Journal of Nuclear Materials},
number = C,
volume = 515,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {9}
}

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