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Title: Dexamethasone treatment did not exacerbate Seneca Valley virus infection in nursery-age pigs

Abstract

Background: Senecavirus A, commonly known as Seneca Valley virus (SVV), is a picornavirus that has been infrequently associated with porcine idiopathic vesicular disease (PIVD). In late 2014 there were multiple PIVD outbreaks in several states in Brazil and samples from those cases tested positive for SVV. Beginning in July of 2015, multiple cases of PIVD were reported in the United States in which a genetically similar SVV was also detected. These events suggested SVV could induce vesicular disease, which was recently demonstrated with contemporary US isolates that produced mild disease in pigs. It was hypothesized that stressful conditions may exacerbate the expression of clinical disease and the following experiment was performed. Two groups of 9-week-old pigs were given an intranasal SVV challenge with one group receiving an immunosuppressive dose of dexamethasone prior to challenge. After challenge animals were observed for the development of clinical signs and serum and swabs were collected to study viral shedding and antibody production. In addition, pigs were euthanized 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 days post inoculation (dpi) to demonstrate tissue distribution of virus during acute infection. Results: Vesicular disease was experimentally induced in both groups with the duration and magnitude of clinical signs similarmore » between groups. During acute infection [0–14 days post infection (dpi)], SVV was detected by PCR in serum, nasal swabs, rectal swabs, various tissues, and in swabs from ruptured vesicles. From 15 to 30 dpi, virus was less consistently detected in nasal and rectal swabs, and absent from most serum samples. Virus neutralizing antibody was detected by 5 dpi and lasted until the end of the study. Conclusion: Treatment with an immunosuppressive dose of dexamethasone did not drastically alter the clinical disease course of SVV in experimentally infected nursery aged swine. A greater understanding of SVV pathogenesis and factors that could exacerbate disease can help the swine industry with control and prevention strategies directed against this virus.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3]
  1. Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education and National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA (United States)
  2. College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States)
  3. National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, Ames, IA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1494687
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-06OR23100
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
BMC Veterinary Research
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 14; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1746-6148
Publisher:
BioMed Central
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; Dexamethasone; Seneca Valley virus (SVV); Vesicular disease; Swine; Nursery-age pigs

Citation Formats

Buckley, Alexandra, Montiel, Nestor, Guo, Baoqing, Kulshreshtha, Vikas, van Geelen, Albert, Hoang, Hai, Rademacher, Christopher, Yoon, Kyoung-Jin, and Lager, Kelly. Dexamethasone treatment did not exacerbate Seneca Valley virus infection in nursery-age pigs. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1186/s12917-018-1693-8.
Buckley, Alexandra, Montiel, Nestor, Guo, Baoqing, Kulshreshtha, Vikas, van Geelen, Albert, Hoang, Hai, Rademacher, Christopher, Yoon, Kyoung-Jin, & Lager, Kelly. Dexamethasone treatment did not exacerbate Seneca Valley virus infection in nursery-age pigs. United States. doi:10.1186/s12917-018-1693-8.
Buckley, Alexandra, Montiel, Nestor, Guo, Baoqing, Kulshreshtha, Vikas, van Geelen, Albert, Hoang, Hai, Rademacher, Christopher, Yoon, Kyoung-Jin, and Lager, Kelly. Tue . "Dexamethasone treatment did not exacerbate Seneca Valley virus infection in nursery-age pigs". United States. doi:10.1186/s12917-018-1693-8. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1494687.
@article{osti_1494687,
title = {Dexamethasone treatment did not exacerbate Seneca Valley virus infection in nursery-age pigs},
author = {Buckley, Alexandra and Montiel, Nestor and Guo, Baoqing and Kulshreshtha, Vikas and van Geelen, Albert and Hoang, Hai and Rademacher, Christopher and Yoon, Kyoung-Jin and Lager, Kelly},
abstractNote = {Background: Senecavirus A, commonly known as Seneca Valley virus (SVV), is a picornavirus that has been infrequently associated with porcine idiopathic vesicular disease (PIVD). In late 2014 there were multiple PIVD outbreaks in several states in Brazil and samples from those cases tested positive for SVV. Beginning in July of 2015, multiple cases of PIVD were reported in the United States in which a genetically similar SVV was also detected. These events suggested SVV could induce vesicular disease, which was recently demonstrated with contemporary US isolates that produced mild disease in pigs. It was hypothesized that stressful conditions may exacerbate the expression of clinical disease and the following experiment was performed. Two groups of 9-week-old pigs were given an intranasal SVV challenge with one group receiving an immunosuppressive dose of dexamethasone prior to challenge. After challenge animals were observed for the development of clinical signs and serum and swabs were collected to study viral shedding and antibody production. In addition, pigs were euthanized 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 days post inoculation (dpi) to demonstrate tissue distribution of virus during acute infection. Results: Vesicular disease was experimentally induced in both groups with the duration and magnitude of clinical signs similar between groups. During acute infection [0–14 days post infection (dpi)], SVV was detected by PCR in serum, nasal swabs, rectal swabs, various tissues, and in swabs from ruptured vesicles. From 15 to 30 dpi, virus was less consistently detected in nasal and rectal swabs, and absent from most serum samples. Virus neutralizing antibody was detected by 5 dpi and lasted until the end of the study. Conclusion: Treatment with an immunosuppressive dose of dexamethasone did not drastically alter the clinical disease course of SVV in experimentally infected nursery aged swine. A greater understanding of SVV pathogenesis and factors that could exacerbate disease can help the swine industry with control and prevention strategies directed against this virus.},
doi = {10.1186/s12917-018-1693-8},
journal = {BMC Veterinary Research},
number = 1,
volume = 14,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {11}
}

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Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Vesicular lesions from 9-week-old swine. a) Ruptured vesicle in the interdigital space. b) Intact vesicle on the lateral coronary band

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