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Title: Effect of Cation Composition on the Mechanical Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells

Abstract

Photoactive perovskite semiconductors are highly tunable, with numerous inorganic and organic cations readily incorporated to modify optoelectronic properties. However, despite the importance of device reliability and long service lifetimes, the effects of various cations on the mechanical properties of perovskites are largely overlooked. In this study, the cohesion energy of perovskites containing various cation combinations of methylammonium, formamidinium, cesium, butylammonium, and 5–aminovaleric acid is reported. A trade–off is observed between the mechanical integrity and the efficiency of perovskite devices. High efficiency devices exhibit decreased cohesion, which is attributed to reduced grain sizes with the inclusion of additional cations and PbI 2 additives. Microindentation hardness testing is performed to estimate the fracture toughness of single–crystal perovskite, and the results indicated perovskites are inherently fragile, even in the absence of grain boundaries and defects. As a result, the devices found to have the highest fracture energies are perovskites infiltrated into a porous TiO 2/ZrO 2/C triple layer, which provide extrinsic reinforcement and shielding for enhanced mechanical and chemical stability.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [3]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [4];  [4]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [5];  [6]; ORCiD logo [6];  [6]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
  2. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) Manufacturing, Clayton, VIC (Australia)
  3. Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore)
  4. Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA (United States)
  5. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  6. Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program
OSTI Identifier:
1494483
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-18-30108
Journal ID: ISSN 1614-6832
Grant/Contract Number:  
89233218CNA000001
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Advanced Energy Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 1614-6832
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; cation; mechanical stability; perovskite solar cells; reliability

Citation Formats

Rolston, Nicholas, Printz, Adam D., Tracy, Jared M., Weerasinghe, Hasitha C., Vak, Doojin, Haur, Lew Jia, Priyadarshi, Anish, Mathews, Nripan, Slotcavage, Daniel J., McGehee, Michael D., Kalan, Roghi E., Zielinski, Kenneth, Grimm, Ronald L., Tsai, Hsinhan, Nie, Wanyi, Mohite, Aditya D., Gholipour, Somayeh, Saliba, Michael, Grätzel, Michael, and Dauskardt, Reinhold H. Effect of Cation Composition on the Mechanical Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/aenm.201702116.
Rolston, Nicholas, Printz, Adam D., Tracy, Jared M., Weerasinghe, Hasitha C., Vak, Doojin, Haur, Lew Jia, Priyadarshi, Anish, Mathews, Nripan, Slotcavage, Daniel J., McGehee, Michael D., Kalan, Roghi E., Zielinski, Kenneth, Grimm, Ronald L., Tsai, Hsinhan, Nie, Wanyi, Mohite, Aditya D., Gholipour, Somayeh, Saliba, Michael, Grätzel, Michael, & Dauskardt, Reinhold H. Effect of Cation Composition on the Mechanical Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells. United States. doi:10.1002/aenm.201702116.
Rolston, Nicholas, Printz, Adam D., Tracy, Jared M., Weerasinghe, Hasitha C., Vak, Doojin, Haur, Lew Jia, Priyadarshi, Anish, Mathews, Nripan, Slotcavage, Daniel J., McGehee, Michael D., Kalan, Roghi E., Zielinski, Kenneth, Grimm, Ronald L., Tsai, Hsinhan, Nie, Wanyi, Mohite, Aditya D., Gholipour, Somayeh, Saliba, Michael, Grätzel, Michael, and Dauskardt, Reinhold H. Mon . "Effect of Cation Composition on the Mechanical Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells". United States. doi:10.1002/aenm.201702116. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1494483.
@article{osti_1494483,
title = {Effect of Cation Composition on the Mechanical Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells},
author = {Rolston, Nicholas and Printz, Adam D. and Tracy, Jared M. and Weerasinghe, Hasitha C. and Vak, Doojin and Haur, Lew Jia and Priyadarshi, Anish and Mathews, Nripan and Slotcavage, Daniel J. and McGehee, Michael D. and Kalan, Roghi E. and Zielinski, Kenneth and Grimm, Ronald L. and Tsai, Hsinhan and Nie, Wanyi and Mohite, Aditya D. and Gholipour, Somayeh and Saliba, Michael and Grätzel, Michael and Dauskardt, Reinhold H.},
abstractNote = {Photoactive perovskite semiconductors are highly tunable, with numerous inorganic and organic cations readily incorporated to modify optoelectronic properties. However, despite the importance of device reliability and long service lifetimes, the effects of various cations on the mechanical properties of perovskites are largely overlooked. In this study, the cohesion energy of perovskites containing various cation combinations of methylammonium, formamidinium, cesium, butylammonium, and 5–aminovaleric acid is reported. A trade–off is observed between the mechanical integrity and the efficiency of perovskite devices. High efficiency devices exhibit decreased cohesion, which is attributed to reduced grain sizes with the inclusion of additional cations and PbI2 additives. Microindentation hardness testing is performed to estimate the fracture toughness of single–crystal perovskite, and the results indicated perovskites are inherently fragile, even in the absence of grain boundaries and defects. As a result, the devices found to have the highest fracture energies are perovskites infiltrated into a porous TiO2/ZrO2/C triple layer, which provide extrinsic reinforcement and shielding for enhanced mechanical and chemical stability.},
doi = {10.1002/aenm.201702116},
journal = {Advanced Energy Materials},
number = 9,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {12}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

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