skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Next generation high brightness electron beams from ultrahigh field cryogenic rf photocathode sources

Abstract

Recent studies of the performance of radio-frequency (rf) copper cavities operated at cryogenic temperatures have shown a dramatic increase in the maximum achievable surface electric field. We propose to exploit this development to enable a new generation of photoinjectors operated at cryogenic temperatures that may attain, through enhancement of the launch field at the photocathode, a significant increase in five-dimensional electron beam brightness. We present detailed studies of the beam dynamics associated with such a system, by examining an S-band photoinjector operated at 250 MV / m peak electric field that reaches normalized emittances in the 40 nm-rad range at charges (100–200 pC) suitable for use in a hard x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) scenario based on the LCLS. In this case, we show by start-to-end simulations that the properties of this source may give rise to high efficiency operation of an XFEL, and permit extension of the photon energy reach by an order of magnitude, to over 80 keV. The brightness needed for such XFELs is achieved through low source emittances in tandem with high current after compression. In the XFEL examples analyzed, the emittances during final compression are preserved using microbunching techniques. Extreme low emittance scenarios obtained at pCmore » charge, appropriate for significantly extending temporal resolution limits of ultrafast electron diffraction and microscopy experiments, are also reviewed. While the increase in brightness in a cryogenic photoinjector is mainly due to the augmentation of the emission current density via field enhancement, further possible increases in performance arising from lowering the intrinsic cathode emittance in cryogenic operation are also analyzed. Issues in experimental implementation, including cavity optimization for lowering cryogenic thermal dissipation, external coupling, and cryocooler system, are discussed. We identify future directions in ultrahigh field cryogenic photoinjectors, including scaling to higher frequency, use of novel rf structures, and enabling of an extremely compact hard x-ray FEL.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1494382
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1503067
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0009914; AC02-76-SF00515; AC02-76SF00515; PHY-1549132
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review Accelerators and Beams
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Physical Review Accelerators and Beams Journal Volume: 22 Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9888
Publisher:
American Physical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS

Citation Formats

Rosenzweig, J. B., Cahill, A., Dolgashev, V., Emma, C., Fukasawa, A., Li, R., Limborg, C., Maxson, J., Musumeci, P., Nause, A., Pakter, R., Pompili, R., Roussel, R., Spataro, B., and Tantawi, S. Next generation high brightness electron beams from ultrahigh field cryogenic rf photocathode sources. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.22.023403.
Rosenzweig, J. B., Cahill, A., Dolgashev, V., Emma, C., Fukasawa, A., Li, R., Limborg, C., Maxson, J., Musumeci, P., Nause, A., Pakter, R., Pompili, R., Roussel, R., Spataro, B., & Tantawi, S. Next generation high brightness electron beams from ultrahigh field cryogenic rf photocathode sources. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.22.023403.
Rosenzweig, J. B., Cahill, A., Dolgashev, V., Emma, C., Fukasawa, A., Li, R., Limborg, C., Maxson, J., Musumeci, P., Nause, A., Pakter, R., Pompili, R., Roussel, R., Spataro, B., and Tantawi, S. Tue . "Next generation high brightness electron beams from ultrahigh field cryogenic rf photocathode sources". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.22.023403.
@article{osti_1494382,
title = {Next generation high brightness electron beams from ultrahigh field cryogenic rf photocathode sources},
author = {Rosenzweig, J. B. and Cahill, A. and Dolgashev, V. and Emma, C. and Fukasawa, A. and Li, R. and Limborg, C. and Maxson, J. and Musumeci, P. and Nause, A. and Pakter, R. and Pompili, R. and Roussel, R. and Spataro, B. and Tantawi, S.},
abstractNote = {Recent studies of the performance of radio-frequency (rf) copper cavities operated at cryogenic temperatures have shown a dramatic increase in the maximum achievable surface electric field. We propose to exploit this development to enable a new generation of photoinjectors operated at cryogenic temperatures that may attain, through enhancement of the launch field at the photocathode, a significant increase in five-dimensional electron beam brightness. We present detailed studies of the beam dynamics associated with such a system, by examining an S-band photoinjector operated at 250 MV / m peak electric field that reaches normalized emittances in the 40 nm-rad range at charges (100–200 pC) suitable for use in a hard x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) scenario based on the LCLS. In this case, we show by start-to-end simulations that the properties of this source may give rise to high efficiency operation of an XFEL, and permit extension of the photon energy reach by an order of magnitude, to over 80 keV. The brightness needed for such XFELs is achieved through low source emittances in tandem with high current after compression. In the XFEL examples analyzed, the emittances during final compression are preserved using microbunching techniques. Extreme low emittance scenarios obtained at pC charge, appropriate for significantly extending temporal resolution limits of ultrafast electron diffraction and microscopy experiments, are also reviewed. While the increase in brightness in a cryogenic photoinjector is mainly due to the augmentation of the emission current density via field enhancement, further possible increases in performance arising from lowering the intrinsic cathode emittance in cryogenic operation are also analyzed. Issues in experimental implementation, including cavity optimization for lowering cryogenic thermal dissipation, external coupling, and cryocooler system, are discussed. We identify future directions in ultrahigh field cryogenic photoinjectors, including scaling to higher frequency, use of novel rf structures, and enabling of an extremely compact hard x-ray FEL.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.22.023403},
journal = {Physical Review Accelerators and Beams},
number = 2,
volume = 22,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {2}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.22.023403

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 2 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Resistive wall wakefields of short bunches at cryogenic temperatures
journal, March 2015

  • Stupakov, G.; Bane, K. L. F.; Emma, P.
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 18, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.18.034402

Thermal Response of Metals to Ultrashort-Pulse Laser Excitation
journal, December 1988


Single-Shot MeV Transmission Electron Microscopy with Picosecond Temporal Resolution
journal, August 2014


Growth and characterization of rugged sodium potassium antimonide photocathodes for high brilliance photoinjector
journal, September 2013

  • Cultrera, L.; Karkare, S.; Lillard, B.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 103, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4820132

High-gradient microelectromechanical system quadrupole electromagnets for particle beam focusing and steering
journal, February 2015

  • Harrison, Jere; Hwang, Yongha; Paydar, Omeed
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 18, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.18.023501

Gain length fitting formula for free-electron lasers with strong space-charge effects
journal, August 2011

  • Marcus, G.; Hemsing, E.; Rosenzweig, J.
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 14, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.14.080702

Suppression of microbunching instability in the linac coherent light source
journal, July 2004

  • Huang, Z.; Borland, M.; Emma, P.
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 7, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.7.074401

Formulas for coherent synchrotron radiation microbunching in a bunch compressor chicane
journal, July 2002


Generation of ultra-short, high brightness electron beams for single-spike SASE FEL operation
journal, August 2008

  • Rosenzweig, J. B.; Alesini, D.; Andonian, G.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 593, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2008.04.083

Femtosecond X-ray protein nanocrystallography
journal, February 2011

  • Chapman, Henry N.; Fromme, Petra; Barty, Anton
  • Nature, Vol. 470, Issue 7332, p. 73-77
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature09750

Dynamics of longitudinal phase-space modulations in an rf compressor for electron beams
journal, August 2010

  • Venturini, M.; Migliorati, M.; Ronsivalle, C.
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 13, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.13.080703

Transmission-electron diffraction by MeV electron pulses
journal, June 2011

  • Murooka, Y.; Naruse, N.; Sakakihara, S.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 98, Issue 25
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3602314

New local field quantity describing the high gradient limit of accelerating structures
journal, October 2009

  • Grudiev, A.; Calatroni, S.; Wuensch, W.
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 12, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.102001

New photoelectric injector design for the Los Alamos National Laboratory XUV FEL accelerator
journal, December 1989

  • Carlsten, B. E.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 285, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1016/0168-9002(89)90472-5

Collective instabilities and high-gain regime in a free electron laser
journal, July 1984


Observation of Field-Emission Dependence on Stored Energy
journal, December 2015


Effects of Surface Nonuniformities on the Mean Transverse Energy from Photocathodes
journal, August 2015


Commissioning the Linac Coherent Light Source injector
journal, March 2008


Tapering enhanced stimulated superradiant amplification
journal, June 2015


Initial measurements of the UCLA rf photoinjector
journal, February 1994

  • Hartman, S. C.; Barov, N.; Pellegrini, C.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 340, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1016/0168-9002(94)91305-6

Emittance compensation in split photoinjectors
journal, January 2017


Experimental studies of dark current in a superconducting rf photoinjector
journal, April 2014


Klystron instability of a relativistic electron beam in a bunch compressor
journal, September 2002

  • Saldin, E. L.; Schneidmiller, E. A.; Yurkov, M. V.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 490, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0168-9002(02)00905-1

Observation of redshifting and harmonic radiation in inverse Compton scattering
journal, June 2015

  • Sakai, Y.; Pogorelsky, I.; Williams, O.
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 18, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.18.060702

High-Power Operation of Accelerator Structures at Liquid Nitrogen Temperature
journal, October 1985

  • McEuen, A. H.; Lui, P.; Tanabe, E.
  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Vol. 32, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1109/TNS.1985.4334244

Ultra-high brightness electron beams from very-high field cryogenic radiofrequency photocathode sources
journal, November 2018

  • Rosenzweig, J. B.; Cahill, A.; Carlsten, B.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 909
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2018.01.061

Measurement of the tradeoff between intrinsic emittance and quantum efficiency from a NaKSb photocathode near threshold
journal, June 2015

  • Maxson, Jared; Cultrera, Luca; Gulliford, Colwyn
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 106, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4922146

Generation of sub-fs electron beams at few-MeV energies
journal, March 2014

  • Floettmann, K.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 740
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2013.12.031

High-Brightness Photoemitier Injector for Electron Accelerators
journal, January 1985

  • Fraser, J. S.; Sheffield, R. L.; Gray, E. R.
  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Vol. 32, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1109/TNS.1985.4333725

Dielectric laser accelerators
journal, December 2014


SACLA hard-X-ray compact FEL
journal, July 2012


Brightness, coherence and propagation characteristics of synchrotron radiation
journal, May 1986

  • Kim, Kwang-Je
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 246, Issue 1-3
  • DOI: 10.1016/0168-9002(86)90048-3

Generation and measurement of velocity bunched ultrashort bunch of pC charge
journal, March 2015

  • Lu, X. H.; Tang, C. X.; Li, R. K.
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 18, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.18.032802

Linearization of the longitudinal phase space without higher harmonic field
journal, December 2015

  • Zeitler, Benno; Floettmann, Klaus; Grüner, Florian
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 18, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.18.120102

Nitrogen-Implanted Silicon Oxynitride: A Coating for Suppressing Field Emission From Stainless Steel Used in High-Voltage Applications
journal, August 2006

  • Theodore, N. D.; Holloway, B. C.; Manos, D. M.
  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. 34, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1109/TPS.2006.877630

Demonstration of self-seeding in a hard-X-ray free-electron laser
journal, August 2012


High-gain, short wavelength FEL in the Raman regime
journal, September 2017

  • Gadjev, I.; Candler, R.; Emma, C.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 865
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2016.09.050

How to Realize Uniform Three-Dimensional Ellipsoidal Electron Bunches
journal, August 2004


Maximum Achievable Beam Brightness from Photoinjectors
journal, March 2009


Efficient temporal shaping of electron distributions for high-brightness photoemission electron guns
journal, April 2008

  • Bazarov, Ivan V.; Ouzounov, Dimitre G.; Dunham, Bruce M.
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 11, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.11.040702

Direct Measurement of the Double Emittance Minimum in the Beam Dynamics of the Sparc High-Brightness Photoinjector
journal, December 2007


Short period, high field cryogenic undulator for extreme performance x-ray free electron lasers
journal, July 2010

  • O’Shea, F. H.; Marcus, G.; Rosenzweig, J. B.
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 13, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.13.070702

Non-linear electron photoemission from metals with ultrashort pulses
journal, March 2009

  • Ferrini, Gabriele; Banfi, Francesco; Giannetti, Claudio
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 601, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2008.12.107

Geometric dependence of radio-frequency breakdown in normal conducting accelerating structures
journal, October 2010

  • Dolgashev, Valery; Tantawi, Sami; Higashi, Yasuo
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 97, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3505339

Measurement of self-shaped ellipsoidal bunches from a photoinjector with postacceleration
journal, January 2011

  • O’Shea, Brendan; Rosenzweig, James B.; Asova, Galina
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 14, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.14.012801

Demonstration of inverse free-electron laser seeding in a sub-80 K, short period cryogenic undulator
journal, November 2014

  • OʼShea, F. H.; Knyazik, Andrey; Marinelli, A.
  • Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Vol. 47, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1088/0953-4075/47/23/234006

Terawatt x-ray free-electron-laser optimization by transverse electron distribution shaping
journal, November 2014


Maximum current density and beam brightness achievable by laser-driven electron sources
journal, February 2014

  • Filippetto, D.; Musumeci, P.; Zolotorev, M.
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 17, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.17.024201

Passive longitudinal phase space linearizer
journal, March 2010


Design and applications of an X-band hybrid photoinjector
journal, November 2011

  • Rosenzweig, J. B.; Valloni, A.; Alesini, D.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 657, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2011.05.046

Performance of a first generation X-band photoelectron rf gun
journal, May 2016


Quantum efficiency and thermal emittance of metal photocathodes
journal, July 2009

  • Dowell, David H.; Schmerge, John F.
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 12, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.074201

Method of an enhanced self-amplified spontaneous emission for x-ray free electron lasers
journal, April 2005


Laser-induced melting of a single crystal gold sample by time-resolved ultrafast relativistic electron diffraction
journal, August 2010

  • Musumeci, P.; Moody, J. T.; Scoby, C. M.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 97, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3478005

Pulse length control in an X-ray FEL by using wakefields
journal, July 2003

  • Reiche, S.; Emma, P.; Pellegrini, C.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 507, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0168-9002(03)00959-8

RF properties of a X-band hybrid photoinjector
journal, November 2011

  • Spataro, B.; Valloni, A.; Alesini, D.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 657, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2011.04.057

rf losses in a high gradient cryogenic copper cavity
journal, June 2018


High-efficiency acceleration of an electron beam in a plasma wakefield accelerator
journal, November 2014


The history of X-ray free-electron lasers
journal, June 2012


Progress on the Hybrid Gun Project at UCLA
journal, January 2014


Experimental study of rf pulsed heating on oxygen free electronic copper
journal, November 2002

  • Pritzkau, David P.; Siemann, Robert H.
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 5, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.5.112002

Four-Dimensional Electron Microscopy
journal, April 2010


Thermal emittance and response time of a cesium antimonide photocathode
journal, October 2011

  • Cultrera, Luca; Bazarov, Ivan; Bartnik, Adam
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 99, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3652758

Transparent, Conductive Carbon Nanotube Films
journal, August 2004


Longitudinal phase space characterization of the blow-out regime of rf photoinjector operation
journal, July 2009

  • Moody, J. T.; Musumeci, P.; Gutierrez, M. S.
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 12, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.070704

Rf and space-charge effects in laser-driven rf electron guns
journal, February 1989

  • Kim, Kwang-Je
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 275, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1016/0168-9002(89)90688-8

rf traveling-wave electron gun for photoinjectors
journal, July 2016


Multiphoton Photoemission from a Copper Cathode Illuminated by Ultrashort Laser Pulses in an rf Photoinjector
journal, February 2010


Dislocation nucleation from near surface void under static tensile stress in Cu
journal, July 2011

  • Pohjonen, A. S.; Djurabekova, F.; Nordlund, K.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 110, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3606582

Measurements of the linac coherent light source laser heater and its impact on the x-ray free-electron laser performance
journal, February 2010

  • Huang, Z.; Brachmann, A.; Decker, F. -J.
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 13, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.13.020703

Experimental investigation of thermal emittance components of copper photocathode
journal, April 2012


Simple method for particle tracking with coherent synchrotron radiation
journal, July 2001


Initial measurements of the UCLA rf photoinjector
journal, March 1994

  • Rosenzweig, J.; Barov, N.; Hartman, S.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 341, Issue 1-3
  • DOI: 10.1016/0168-9002(94)90387-5

Thermal limit to the intrinsic emittance from metal photocathodes
journal, September 2015

  • Feng, Jun; Nasiatka, J.; Wan, Weishi
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 107, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4931976

Femtosecond x-ray pulse temporal characterization in free-electron lasers using a transverse deflector
journal, December 2011


First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser
journal, August 2010


C -band disk-loaded-type accelerating structure for a high acceleration gradient and high-repetition-rate operation
journal, April 2017


Optimization of free electron laser performance by dispersion-based beam-tilt correction
journal, March 2015

  • Guetg, Marc Walter; Beutner, Bolko; Prat, Eduard
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 18, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.18.030701

Low-field accelerator structure couplers and design techniques
journal, July 2004

  • Nantista, Christopher; Tantawi, Sami; Dolgashev, Valery
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 7, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.7.072001

Italian free-electron laser
journal, January 2014


Development of ultra-short pulse, single coherent spike for SASE X-ray FELs
journal, August 2008

  • Reiche, S.; Musumeci, P.; Pellegrini, C.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 593, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2008.04.061

Laser heater commissioning at an externally seeded free-electron laser
journal, December 2014

  • Spampinati, S.; Allaria, E.; Badano, L.
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 17, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.17.120705

Experimental Demonstration of a Soft X-Ray Self-Seeded Free-Electron Laser
journal, February 2015


High gradient experiments with X -band cryogenic copper accelerating cavities
journal, October 2018


Surface-micromachined magnetic undulator with period length between 10 μ m and 1 mm for advanced light sources
journal, July 2012

  • Harrison, Jere; Joshi, Abhijeet; Lake, Jonathan
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 15, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.15.070703

Intrinsic emittance reduction of copper cathodes by laser wavelength tuning in an rf photoinjector
journal, March 2015

  • Divall, Marta Csatari; Prat, Eduard; Bettoni, Simona
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 18, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.18.033401

rf-induced beam dynamics in rf guns and accelerating cavities
journal, June 2015


Theory of the Anomalous Skin Effect in Normal and Superconducting Metals
journal, July 1958


Relaxation dynamics in laser-excited metals under nonequilibrium conditions
journal, January 2013


High efficiency, multiterawatt x-ray free electron lasers
journal, February 2016


Modeling and design of an X -band rf photoinjector
journal, October 2012

  • Marsh, R. A.; Albert, F.; Anderson, S. G.
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 15, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.15.102001

X-ray free-electron lasers: from dreams to reality
journal, March 2016


Formation and acceleration of uniformly filled ellipsoidal electron bunches obtained via space-charge-driven expansion from a cesium-telluride photocathode
journal, January 2013

  • Piot, P.; Sun, Y. -E; Maxwell, T. J.
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 16, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.16.010102

Demonstration of Nonlinear-Energy-Spread Compensation in Relativistic Electron Bunches with Corrugated Structures
journal, March 2015


Thermionic Emission, Field Emission, and the Transition Region
journal, June 1956


In situ cleaning of metal cathodes using a hydrogen ion beam
journal, June 2006

  • Dowell, D. H.; King, F. K.; Kirby, R. E.
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 9, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.9.063502

Photoinjector design for the LCLs
journal, May 2002

  • Bolton, P. R.; Clendenin, J. E.; Dowell, D. H.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 483, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0168-9002(02)00331-5

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Prospect of Studying Nonperturbative QED with Beam-Beam Collisions
    journal, May 2019