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Title: Driving chemical interactions at graphene-germanium van der Waals interfaces via thermal annealing

Abstract

Despite its extraordinary charge carrier mobility, the lack of an electronic bandgap in graphene limits its utilization in electronic devices. To overcome this issue, researchers have attempted to chemically modify the pristine graphene lattice in order to engineer its electronic bandstructure. While significant progress has been achieved, aggressive chemistries are often employed that are difficult to pattern and control. In an effort to overcome this issue, here we utilize the well-defined van der Waals interface between crystalline Ge(110) and epitaxial graphene to template covalent chemistry. In particular, by annealing atomically pristine graphene-germanium interfaces synthesized by chemical vapor deposition under ultra-high vacuum conditions, chemical bonding is driven between the germanium surface and the graphene lattice. The resulting bonds act as charge scattering centers that are identified with scanning tunneling microscopy. The generation of atomic-scale defects are independently confirmed with Raman spectroscopy, revealing significant densities within the graphene lattice. Furthermore, the resulting chemically modified graphene has the potential to impact next-generation nanoelectronic applications.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [2]; ORCiD logo [4];  [3]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)
  2. Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States)
  3. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  4. Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1493753
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 113; Journal Issue: 21; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Kiraly, Brian, Mannix, Andrew J., Jacobberger, Robert M., Fisher, Brandon L., Arnold, Michael S., Hersam, Mark C., and Guisinger, Nathan P. Driving chemical interactions at graphene-germanium van der Waals interfaces via thermal annealing. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1063/1.5053083.
Kiraly, Brian, Mannix, Andrew J., Jacobberger, Robert M., Fisher, Brandon L., Arnold, Michael S., Hersam, Mark C., & Guisinger, Nathan P. Driving chemical interactions at graphene-germanium van der Waals interfaces via thermal annealing. United States. doi:10.1063/1.5053083.
Kiraly, Brian, Mannix, Andrew J., Jacobberger, Robert M., Fisher, Brandon L., Arnold, Michael S., Hersam, Mark C., and Guisinger, Nathan P. Mon . "Driving chemical interactions at graphene-germanium van der Waals interfaces via thermal annealing". United States. doi:10.1063/1.5053083. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1493753.
@article{osti_1493753,
title = {Driving chemical interactions at graphene-germanium van der Waals interfaces via thermal annealing},
author = {Kiraly, Brian and Mannix, Andrew J. and Jacobberger, Robert M. and Fisher, Brandon L. and Arnold, Michael S. and Hersam, Mark C. and Guisinger, Nathan P.},
abstractNote = {Despite its extraordinary charge carrier mobility, the lack of an electronic bandgap in graphene limits its utilization in electronic devices. To overcome this issue, researchers have attempted to chemically modify the pristine graphene lattice in order to engineer its electronic bandstructure. While significant progress has been achieved, aggressive chemistries are often employed that are difficult to pattern and control. In an effort to overcome this issue, here we utilize the well-defined van der Waals interface between crystalline Ge(110) and epitaxial graphene to template covalent chemistry. In particular, by annealing atomically pristine graphene-germanium interfaces synthesized by chemical vapor deposition under ultra-high vacuum conditions, chemical bonding is driven between the germanium surface and the graphene lattice. The resulting bonds act as charge scattering centers that are identified with scanning tunneling microscopy. The generation of atomic-scale defects are independently confirmed with Raman spectroscopy, revealing significant densities within the graphene lattice. Furthermore, the resulting chemically modified graphene has the potential to impact next-generation nanoelectronic applications.},
doi = {10.1063/1.5053083},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 21,
volume = 113,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {11}
}

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