# Extended magnetohydrodynamics with embedded particle-in-cell simulation of Ganymede's magnetosphere

## Abstract

Here, we have recently developed a new modeling capability to embed the implicit particle–in–cell (PIC) model iPIC3D into the Block–Adaptive–Tree–Solarwind–Roe–Upwind–Scheme magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. The MHD with embedded PIC domains (MHD–EPIC) algorithm is a two–way coupled kinetic–fluid model. As one of the very first applications of the MHD–EPIC algorithm, we simulate the interaction between Jupiter's magnetospheric plasma and Ganymede's magnetosphere. We compare the MHD–EPIC simulations with pure Hall MHD simulations and compare both model results with Galileo observations to assess the importance of kinetic effects in controlling the configuration and dynamics of Ganymede's magnetosphere. We find that the Hall MHD and MHD–EPIC solutions are qualitatively similar, but there are significant quantitative differences. In particular, the density and pressure inside the magnetosphere show different distributions. For our baseline grid resolution the PIC solution is more dynamic than the Hall MHD simulation and it compares significantly better with the Galileo magnetic measurements than the Hall MHD solution. The power spectra of the observed and simulated magnetic field fluctuations agree extremely well for the MHD–EPIC model. The MHD–EPIC simulation also produced a few flux transfer events (FTEs) that have magnetic signatures very similar to an observed event. The simulation shows that the FTEs oftenmore »

- Authors:

- Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
- KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)
- NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

- Publication Date:

- Research Org.:
- Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

- Sponsoring Org.:
- USDOE Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program

- OSTI Identifier:
- 1493561

- Report Number(s):
- LA-UR-18-31266

Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9380

- Grant/Contract Number:
- 89233218CNA000001

- Resource Type:
- Accepted Manuscript

- Journal Name:
- Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics

- Additional Journal Information:
- Journal Volume: 121; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9380

- Publisher:
- American Geophysical Union

- Country of Publication:
- United States

- Language:
- English

- Subject:
- 79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; kinetic simulation; Ganymede; Hall MHD; Galileo

### Citation Formats

```
Tóth, Gábor, Jia, Xianzhe, Markidis, Stefano, Peng, Ivy Bo, Chen, Yuxi, Daldorff, Lars K. S., Tenishev, Valeriy M., Borovikov, Dmitry, Haiducek, John D., Gombosi, Tamas I., Glocer, Alex, and Dorelli, John C. Extended magnetohydrodynamics with embedded particle-in-cell simulation of Ganymede's magnetosphere. United States: N. p., 2016.
Web. doi:10.1002/2015JA021997.
```

```
Tóth, Gábor, Jia, Xianzhe, Markidis, Stefano, Peng, Ivy Bo, Chen, Yuxi, Daldorff, Lars K. S., Tenishev, Valeriy M., Borovikov, Dmitry, Haiducek, John D., Gombosi, Tamas I., Glocer, Alex, & Dorelli, John C. Extended magnetohydrodynamics with embedded particle-in-cell simulation of Ganymede's magnetosphere. United States. doi:10.1002/2015JA021997.
```

```
Tóth, Gábor, Jia, Xianzhe, Markidis, Stefano, Peng, Ivy Bo, Chen, Yuxi, Daldorff, Lars K. S., Tenishev, Valeriy M., Borovikov, Dmitry, Haiducek, John D., Gombosi, Tamas I., Glocer, Alex, and Dorelli, John C. Thu .
"Extended magnetohydrodynamics with embedded particle-in-cell simulation of Ganymede's magnetosphere". United States. doi:10.1002/2015JA021997. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1493561.
```

```
@article{osti_1493561,
```

title = {Extended magnetohydrodynamics with embedded particle-in-cell simulation of Ganymede's magnetosphere},

author = {Tóth, Gábor and Jia, Xianzhe and Markidis, Stefano and Peng, Ivy Bo and Chen, Yuxi and Daldorff, Lars K. S. and Tenishev, Valeriy M. and Borovikov, Dmitry and Haiducek, John D. and Gombosi, Tamas I. and Glocer, Alex and Dorelli, John C.},

abstractNote = {Here, we have recently developed a new modeling capability to embed the implicit particle–in–cell (PIC) model iPIC3D into the Block–Adaptive–Tree–Solarwind–Roe–Upwind–Scheme magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. The MHD with embedded PIC domains (MHD–EPIC) algorithm is a two–way coupled kinetic–fluid model. As one of the very first applications of the MHD–EPIC algorithm, we simulate the interaction between Jupiter's magnetospheric plasma and Ganymede's magnetosphere. We compare the MHD–EPIC simulations with pure Hall MHD simulations and compare both model results with Galileo observations to assess the importance of kinetic effects in controlling the configuration and dynamics of Ganymede's magnetosphere. We find that the Hall MHD and MHD–EPIC solutions are qualitatively similar, but there are significant quantitative differences. In particular, the density and pressure inside the magnetosphere show different distributions. For our baseline grid resolution the PIC solution is more dynamic than the Hall MHD simulation and it compares significantly better with the Galileo magnetic measurements than the Hall MHD solution. The power spectra of the observed and simulated magnetic field fluctuations agree extremely well for the MHD–EPIC model. The MHD–EPIC simulation also produced a few flux transfer events (FTEs) that have magnetic signatures very similar to an observed event. The simulation shows that the FTEs often exhibit complex 3–D structures with their orientations changing substantially between the equatorial plane and the Galileo trajectory, which explains the magnetic signatures observed during the magnetopause crossings. The computational cost of the MHD–EPIC simulation was only about 4 times more than that of the Hall MHD simulation.},

doi = {10.1002/2015JA021997},

journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics},

number = 2,

volume = 121,

place = {United States},

year = {2016},

month = {1}

}

*Citation information provided by*

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#### Figures / Tables:

*R*. The electron jets extending from the X-line are clearlymore »

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Figures / Tables found in this record:

*Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.*