skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Three-dimensional structure investigation of Waterborne Paint by Electron Microscopic Imaging

Abstract

Serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) has been used to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) structure of a cured waterborne paint containing TiO2 pigment particles, and the surrounding environment of the TiO2 pigment particles in the cured paint film was also discussed. The 3D spatial distribution of the particles in the paint film and their degree of dispersion were clearly revealed. More than 55% of the measured TiO2 particles have volumes between 1.0 × 106 nm3 and 1.0 × 107 nm3. From the obtained 3D images, we proposed that there are three different types of voids in the measured cured waterborne paint film: voids that exist in the cured paint themselves, voids produced by particle shedding, and voids produced by quasi-liquid phase evaporation during measurement. Among these, the latter two types of voids are artefacts caused during SBFSEM measurement which provide evidence to support that the pigment particles in the cured paint/coating films are surrounding by quasi-liquid environment rather than dry solid environment. The error caused by particle shedding to the statistical calculation of the TiO2 particles was corrected in our analysis. The resulting 3D structure of the paint, especially the different voids are important for further systematic research, and aremore » critical for understanding the real environment of the pigment particles in the cured paint films.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [1]
  1. Tongji Univ., Shanghai (China). School of Materials Science and Engineering
  2. Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom). London Centre for Nanotechnology; Tongji Univ., Shanghai (China). School of Materials Science and Engineering
  3. Univ. of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom). School of Materials
  4. Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom). London Centre for Nanotechnology; Tongji Univ., Shanghai (China). School of Materials Science and Engineering; Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Division of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
OSTI Identifier:
1493185
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1504376
Report Number(s):
BNL-211238-2019-JAAM; BNL-211491-2019-JAAM
Journal ID: ISSN 1996-1944
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0012704
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 12; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 1996-1944
Publisher:
MDPI
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Three-dimensional (3D) structure; TiO2 particles; Voids; Water-borne paint; Serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM)

Citation Formats

Yang, Fei, Chen, Bo, Hashimoto, Teruo, Thompson, George, Robinson, Ian, and Zhang, Yongming. Three-dimensional structure investigation of Waterborne Paint by Electron Microscopic Imaging. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030464.
Yang, Fei, Chen, Bo, Hashimoto, Teruo, Thompson, George, Robinson, Ian, & Zhang, Yongming. Three-dimensional structure investigation of Waterborne Paint by Electron Microscopic Imaging. United States. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030464
Yang, Fei, Chen, Bo, Hashimoto, Teruo, Thompson, George, Robinson, Ian, and Zhang, Yongming. Sat . "Three-dimensional structure investigation of Waterborne Paint by Electron Microscopic Imaging". United States. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030464. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1493185.
@article{osti_1493185,
title = {Three-dimensional structure investigation of Waterborne Paint by Electron Microscopic Imaging},
author = {Yang, Fei and Chen, Bo and Hashimoto, Teruo and Thompson, George and Robinson, Ian and Zhang, Yongming},
abstractNote = {Serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) has been used to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) structure of a cured waterborne paint containing TiO2 pigment particles, and the surrounding environment of the TiO2 pigment particles in the cured paint film was also discussed. The 3D spatial distribution of the particles in the paint film and their degree of dispersion were clearly revealed. More than 55% of the measured TiO2 particles have volumes between 1.0 × 106 nm3 and 1.0 × 107 nm3. From the obtained 3D images, we proposed that there are three different types of voids in the measured cured waterborne paint film: voids that exist in the cured paint themselves, voids produced by particle shedding, and voids produced by quasi-liquid phase evaporation during measurement. Among these, the latter two types of voids are artefacts caused during SBFSEM measurement which provide evidence to support that the pigment particles in the cured paint/coating films are surrounding by quasi-liquid environment rather than dry solid environment. The error caused by particle shedding to the statistical calculation of the TiO2 particles was corrected in our analysis. The resulting 3D structure of the paint, especially the different voids are important for further systematic research, and are critical for understanding the real environment of the pigment particles in the cured paint films.},
doi = {10.3390/ma12030464},
journal = {Materials},
number = 3,
volume = 12,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {2}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Two-dimensional (2D) backscattered electron (BSE) micrographs of the TiO2 pigmented waterborne paint film obtained from serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) measurement: (a) An original BSE micrograph slice of the sample acquired by SBFSEM; (b) The zoomed-in image of the part enclosed by the red square, 500 xmore » 500 pixels (6.5 μm x 6.5 μm) large, in panel a; (c) The noise reduction processed image of the selective part as shown in panel b. The grey parts are acrylic resin, the white parts are TiO2 particles, and the black parts are voids.« less

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Revealing the three dimensional internal structure of aluminium alloys: 3D structure of aluminium alloys
journal, January 2013

  • Thompson, George Edward; Hashimoto, Teruo; Zhong, Xiang Li
  • Surface and Interface Analysis, Vol. 45, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/sia.5221

Titania pigment particles dispersion in water-based paint films
journal, October 2006

  • Farrokhpay, Saeed; Morris, Gayle E.; Fornasiero, Daniel
  • Journal of Coatings Technology and Research, Vol. 3, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11998-006-0023-4

Serial Block-Face Scanning Electron Microscopy to Reconstruct Three-Dimensional Tissue Nanostructure
journal, October 2004


3D imaging by serial block face scanning electron microscopy for materials science using ultramicrotomy
journal, April 2016


A review on the environmental durability of intumescent coatings for steels
journal, September 2017


Molecular genetics and imaging technologies for circuit-based neuroanatomy
journal, October 2009

  • Arenkiel, Benjamin R.; Ehlers, Michael D.
  • Nature, Vol. 461, Issue 7266
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature08536

Radiation-driven rotational motion of nanoparticles
journal, April 2018

  • Liang, Mengning; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian
  • Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Vol. 25, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1107/S1600577518005039

Effect of TiO2 on UV stability of polymeric binder films used in waterborne facade paints
journal, August 2015


Effect of quantity and size distribution of calcite filler on the quality of water borne paints
journal, July 2012


Comparison of Two Moldable Calcium Phosphate-Based Bone Graft Materials in a Noninstrumented Canine Interspinous Implantation Model
journal, December 2017

  • Barbieri, Davide; Yuan, Huipin; Ismailoğlu, Ali Sait
  • Tissue Engineering Part A, Vol. 23, Issue 23-24
  • DOI: 10.1089/ten.tea.2016.0347

Accelerated degradation of water borne acrylic nanocomposites used in outdoor protective coatings
journal, June 2016


Effect of precipitated calcium carbonate additions on waterborne paints at different pigment volume concentrations
journal, June 2015


Flexural properties of acrylic resin polymers reinforced with unidirectional and woven glass fibers
journal, March 1999


An investigation into waterborne intumescent coating with different fillers for steel application
journal, March 2018

  • Md Nasir, K.; Ramli Sulong, N. H.; Johan, M. R.
  • Pigment & Resin Technology, Vol. 47, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1108/PRT-09-2016-0089

Three-dimensional positioning and structure of chromosomes in a human prophase nucleus
journal, July 2017


Surface modifications of talcs. Effects of inorganic and organic acid treatments
journal, December 2010

  • Castillo, Luciana A.; Barbosa, Silvia E.; Maiza, Pedro
  • Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 46, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10853-010-5110-3

Effects of nanoparticulate silver on the corrosion protection performance of polyurethane coatings on mild steel in sodium chloride solution
journal, August 2014


Recent trends in environmentally friendly water-borne polyurethane coatings: A review
journal, December 2015

  • Noreen, Aqdas; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Zuber, Mohammad
  • Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, Vol. 33, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11814-015-0241-5

Three-Dimensional Structure Analysis and Percolation Properties of a Barrier Marine Coating
journal, January 2013

  • Chen, Bo; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Xiong, Gang
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 3, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep01177

Paint and coatings: A mature industry in transition
journal, January 1997


Three-dimensional analysis of the spatial distribution of iron oxide particles in a decorative coating by electron microscopic imaging
journal, June 2014


Serial Block-Face Imaging and its Potential for Reconstructing Diminutive Cell Systems: A Case Study from Arthropods
journal, February 2014

  • Lipke, Elisabeth; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas; Pakzad, Anahita
  • Microscopy and Microanalysis, Vol. 20, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1017/S1431927614000087

Brownian motion studies of viscoelastic colloidal gels by rotational single particle tracking
journal, April 2014


    Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.