skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Dislocation-induced thermal transport anisotropy in single-crystal group-III nitride films

Abstract

Dislocations, one-dimensional lattice imperfections, are common to technologically important materials such as III–V semiconductors, and adversely affect heat dissipation in, for example, nitride-based high-power electronic devices. For decades, conventional nonlinear elasticity models have predicted that this thermal resistance is only appreciable when the heat flux is perpendicular to the dislocations. However, this dislocation-induced anisotropic thermal transport has yet to be seen experimentally. Using time-domain thermoreflectance, we measure strong thermal transport anisotropy governed by highly oriented threading dislocation arrays throughout micrometre-thick, single-crystal indium nitride films. We find that the cross-plane thermal conductivity is almost tenfold higher than the in-plane thermal conductivity at 80 K when the dislocation density is ~3 × 1010 cm–2. Furthermore, this large anisotropy is not predicted by conventional models. With enhanced understanding of dislocation–phonon interactions, our results may allow the tailoring of anisotropic thermal transport with line defects, and could facilitate methods for directed heat dissipation in the thermal management of diverse device applications.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4]; ORCiD logo [3];  [2]; ORCiD logo [5]
  1. National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore); Tsinghua Univ., Shenzhen (China)
  2. Technical Univ. of Munich, Garching (Germany)
  3. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  4. (Zi-Jian) [Technical Univ. of Munich, Garching (Germany)
  5. National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
OSTI Identifier:
1493152
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 18; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1476-1122
Publisher:
Springer Nature - Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Sun, Bo, Haunschild, Georg, Polanco, Carlos A., Ju, James, Lindsay, Lucas R., Koblmüller, Gregor, and Koh, Yee Kan. Dislocation-induced thermal transport anisotropy in single-crystal group-III nitride films. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1038/s41563-018-0250-y.
Sun, Bo, Haunschild, Georg, Polanco, Carlos A., Ju, James, Lindsay, Lucas R., Koblmüller, Gregor, & Koh, Yee Kan. Dislocation-induced thermal transport anisotropy in single-crystal group-III nitride films. United States. doi:10.1038/s41563-018-0250-y.
Sun, Bo, Haunschild, Georg, Polanco, Carlos A., Ju, James, Lindsay, Lucas R., Koblmüller, Gregor, and Koh, Yee Kan. Mon . "Dislocation-induced thermal transport anisotropy in single-crystal group-III nitride films". United States. doi:10.1038/s41563-018-0250-y. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1493152.
@article{osti_1493152,
title = {Dislocation-induced thermal transport anisotropy in single-crystal group-III nitride films},
author = {Sun, Bo and Haunschild, Georg and Polanco, Carlos A. and Ju, James and Lindsay, Lucas R. and Koblmüller, Gregor and Koh, Yee Kan},
abstractNote = {Dislocations, one-dimensional lattice imperfections, are common to technologically important materials such as III–V semiconductors, and adversely affect heat dissipation in, for example, nitride-based high-power electronic devices. For decades, conventional nonlinear elasticity models have predicted that this thermal resistance is only appreciable when the heat flux is perpendicular to the dislocations. However, this dislocation-induced anisotropic thermal transport has yet to be seen experimentally. Using time-domain thermoreflectance, we measure strong thermal transport anisotropy governed by highly oriented threading dislocation arrays throughout micrometre-thick, single-crystal indium nitride films. We find that the cross-plane thermal conductivity is almost tenfold higher than the in-plane thermal conductivity at 80 K when the dislocation density is ~3 × 1010 cm–2. Furthermore, this large anisotropy is not predicted by conventional models. With enhanced understanding of dislocation–phonon interactions, our results may allow the tailoring of anisotropic thermal transport with line defects, and could facilitate methods for directed heat dissipation in the thermal management of diverse device applications.},
doi = {10.1038/s41563-018-0250-y},
journal = {Nature Materials},
number = 2,
volume = 18,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {12}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 10 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Thermal Resistivity Changes in Electron-Irradiated Pyrolytic Graphite
journal, August 1975

  • Nihira, Takeshi; Iwata, Tadao
  • Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 14, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1143/JJAP.14.1099

Fractal Lévy Heat Transport in Nanoparticle Embedded Semiconductor Alloys
journal, February 2015

  • Mohammed, Amr M. S.; Koh, Yee Rui; Vermeersch, Bjorn
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 15, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl5044665

Intrinsic lattice thermal conductivity of semiconductors from first principles
journal, December 2007

  • Broido, D. A.; Malorny, M.; Birner, G.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2822891

Accurate dependence of gallium nitride thermal conductivity on dislocation density
journal, August 2006

  • Mion, C.; Muth, J. F.; Preble, E. A.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 89, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2335972

Ab initio thermal transport in compound semiconductors
journal, April 2013


Thermal Conductivity Spectroscopy Technique to Measure Phonon Mean Free Paths
journal, August 2011


Role of low-energy phonons with mean-free-paths >0.8 μm in heat conduction in silicon
journal, June 2016

  • Jiang, Puqing; Lindsay, Lucas; Koh, Yee Kan
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 119, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4954674

Scattering of Phonons by Elastic Strain Fields and the Thermal Resistance of Dislocations
journal, May 1959


Anisotropy of the Thermal Conductivity in GaAs/AlAs Superlattices
journal, August 2013

  • Luckyanova, Maria N.; Johnson, Jeremy A.; Maznev, A. A.
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 13, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl4001162

Ab initio phonon point defect scattering and thermal transport in graphene
journal, January 2018


Scattering of Lattice Waves by Static Strain Fields in Crystals
journal, June 1974

  • Kogure, Yoshiaki; Hiki, Yosio
  • Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, Vol. 36, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1143/JPSJ.36.1597

In-polar InN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy
journal, July 2006

  • Gallinat, Chad S.; Koblmüller, Gregor; Brown, Jay S.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 89, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2234274

High thermoelectric performance by resonant dopant indium in nanostructured SnTe
journal, July 2013

  • Zhang, Q.; Liao, B.; Lan, Y.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, Issue 33, p. 13261-13266
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1305735110

High-Quality InN Film Grown on a Low-Temperature-Grown GaN Intermediate Layer by Plasma-Assisted Molecular-Beam Epitaxy
journal, May 2002

  • Higashiwaki, Masataka; Matsui, Toshiaki
  • Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 41, Issue Part 2, No. 5B
  • DOI: 10.1143/JJAP.41.L540

Stress relaxation in mismatched layers due to threading dislocation inclination
journal, September 2003

  • Romanov, A. E.; Speck, J. S.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 83, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1613360

Analysis of heat flow in layered structures for time-domain thermoreflectance
journal, December 2004

  • Cahill, David G.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 75, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1819431

Accurate measurements of cross-plane thermal conductivity of thin films by dual-frequency time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR)
journal, July 2016

  • Jiang, Puqing; Huang, Bin; Koh, Yee Kan
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 87, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4954969

Thermal conductivity of isotopically modified graphene
journal, January 2012

  • Chen, Shanshan; Wu, Qingzhi; Mishra, Columbia
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 11, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat3207

Intrinsic thermal conductivity and its anisotropy of wurtzite InN
journal, August 2014

  • Ma, Jinlong; Li, Wu; Luo, Xiaobing
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 105, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4893882

Temperature Dependence of Anisotropic Thermal-Conductivity Tensor of Bulk Black Phosphorus
journal, November 2016


Effect of Dislocations on the Thermal Conductivity of Lithium Fluoride
journal, March 1959

  • Sproull, R. L.; Moss, M.; Weinstock, H.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 30, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1735163

Basal-plane thermal conductivity of few-layer molybdenum disulfide
journal, May 2014

  • Jo, Insun; Pettes, Michael Thompson; Ou, Eric
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 104, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4876965

Thermal Conductivity and Large Isotope Effect in GaN from First Principles
journal, August 2012


Effect of independent and coupled vibrations of dislocations on low-temperature thermal conductivity in alkali halides
journal, February 1982


Beyond the isotropic-model approximation in the theory of thermal conductivity
journal, April 1996


Capacitively Coupled Microplasma Source on a Chip at Atmospheric Pressure
journal, April 2001

  • Yoshiki, Hiroyuki; Horiike, Yasuhiro
  • Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 40, Issue Part 2, No. 4A
  • DOI: 10.1143/JJAP.40.L360

Effect of nitrogen and vacancy defects on the thermal conductivity of diamond: An ab initio Green's function approach
journal, September 2014


Trade-off between morphology, extended defects, and compositional fluctuation induced carrier localization in high In-content InGaN films
journal, August 2014

  • Ju, James (Zi-Jian); Loitsch, Bernhard; Stettner, Thomas
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 116, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4891990

Reduced threading dislocation densities in high-T/N-rich grown InN films by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy
journal, February 2013

  • Loitsch, Bernhard; Schuster, Fabian; Stutzmann, Martin
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 102, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4789983

The Scattering of Low-Frequency Lattice Waves by Static Imperfections
journal, December 1955


Layer-by-layer thermal conductivities of the Group III nitride films in blue/green light emitting diodes
journal, May 2012

  • Su, Zonghui; Huang, Li; Liu, Fang
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 100, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4718354

Evaluation of threading dislocation densities in In- and N-face InN
journal, March 2010

  • Gallinat, C. S.; Koblmüller, G.; Wu, Feng
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 107, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3319557

Nonperturbative Quantum Nature of the Dislocation–Phonon Interaction
journal, February 2017


Measurement of strain fields in an edge dislocation
journal, January 2010


Cross-plane heat conduction in thin films with ab-initio phonon dispersions and scattering rates
journal, May 2016

  • Vermeersch, Bjorn; Carrete, Jesús; Mingo, Natalio
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 108, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4948968

Exceptionally Strong Phonon Scattering by B Substitution in Cubic SiC
journal, August 2017


Graphene quilts for thermal management of high-power GaN transistors
journal, January 2012

  • Yan, Zhong; Liu, Guanxiong; Khan, Javed M.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 3, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms1828

Unusually High and Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity in Amorphous Silicon Nanostructures
journal, February 2017


First Principles Peierls-Boltzmann Phonon Thermal Transport: A Topical Review
journal, April 2016


Ab initio phonon scattering by dislocations
journal, June 2017


Broadband phonon mean free path contributions to thermal conductivity measured using frequency domain thermoreflectance
journal, March 2013

  • Regner, Keith T.; Sellan, Daniel P.; Su, Zonghui
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 4, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms2630

Pump-probe measurements of the thermal conductivity tensor for materials lacking in-plane symmetry
journal, October 2014

  • Feser, Joseph P.; Liu, Jun; Cahill, David G.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 85, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4897622

Thermal conductivity of individual silicon nanowires
journal, October 2003

  • Li, Deyu; Wu, Yiying; Kim, Philip
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 83, Issue 14, p. 2934-2936
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1616981

Frequency dependence of the thermal conductivity of semiconductor alloys
journal, August 2007


Scattering of thermal phonons by dislocations in superconducting lead and tantalum
journal, July 1974


Interfacial phonon scattering and transmission loss in > 1 µm thick silicon-on-insulator thin films
journal, May 2018


Anisotropic failure of Fourier theory in time-domain thermoreflectance experiments
journal, October 2014

  • Wilson, R. B.; Cahill, David G.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms6075

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Highly anisotropic thermoelectric properties of black phosphorus crystals
    journal, July 2019


    Highly anisotropic thermoelectric properties of black phosphorus crystals
    journal, July 2019