# A New Methodology for Calculating The Energy Performance of Manufacturing Facilities

## Abstract

Total energy comparison (TEC), classic energy intensity (CEI), and linear regression models (LRM) are the three most common approaches used to track the energy performance of manufacturing facilities. TEC simply compares the total energy consumption from utility bills. TEC is rarely used because it does not consider the variation of any factors that may affect energy consumption. One step better, CEI considers the variation of production rates by using the ratio of annual total energy consumption over annual total production. However, CEI fundamentally assumes that energy consumption is zero if the production rate is zero. This is almost never true and can cause significant errors. Using linear regression models, LRM considers the impact of multiple variables and, therefore, most accurately tracks energy performance. Unfortunately, because of the lack of either required data or technical expertise, some facilities cannot create valid linear regression models. For these cases, CEI is the only option. Here, the goal of this article is to develop a new methodology, modified energy intensity (MEI), which is more accurate than CEI, but requires much less data and is easier to implement than LRM. Using the underlying principle of LRM, this article first outlines the mathematical derivation of themore »

- Authors:

- Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
- Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)

- Publication Date:

- Research Org.:
- Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

- Sponsoring Org.:
- USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

- OSTI Identifier:
- 1493115

- Grant/Contract Number:
- [AC05-00OR22725]

- Resource Type:
- Accepted Manuscript

- Journal Name:
- Energy Engineering

- Additional Journal Information:
- [ Journal Volume: 116; Journal Issue: 2]; Journal ID: ISSN 0199-8595

- Publisher:
- Taylor & Francis

- Country of Publication:
- United States

- Language:
- English

- Subject:
- 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION

### Citation Formats

```
Guo, Wei, Wenning, Thomas, Nimbalkar, Sachin U., Thirumaran, Kiran, Armstrong, Kristina O., and Levine, Eli. A New Methodology for Calculating The Energy Performance of Manufacturing Facilities. United States: N. p., 2019.
Web. doi:10.1080/01998595.2019.12054402.
```

```
Guo, Wei, Wenning, Thomas, Nimbalkar, Sachin U., Thirumaran, Kiran, Armstrong, Kristina O., & Levine, Eli. A New Methodology for Calculating The Energy Performance of Manufacturing Facilities. United States. doi:10.1080/01998595.2019.12054402.
```

```
Guo, Wei, Wenning, Thomas, Nimbalkar, Sachin U., Thirumaran, Kiran, Armstrong, Kristina O., and Levine, Eli. Thu .
"A New Methodology for Calculating The Energy Performance of Manufacturing Facilities". United States. doi:10.1080/01998595.2019.12054402. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1493115.
```

```
@article{osti_1493115,
```

title = {A New Methodology for Calculating The Energy Performance of Manufacturing Facilities},

author = {Guo, Wei and Wenning, Thomas and Nimbalkar, Sachin U. and Thirumaran, Kiran and Armstrong, Kristina O. and Levine, Eli},

abstractNote = {Total energy comparison (TEC), classic energy intensity (CEI), and linear regression models (LRM) are the three most common approaches used to track the energy performance of manufacturing facilities. TEC simply compares the total energy consumption from utility bills. TEC is rarely used because it does not consider the variation of any factors that may affect energy consumption. One step better, CEI considers the variation of production rates by using the ratio of annual total energy consumption over annual total production. However, CEI fundamentally assumes that energy consumption is zero if the production rate is zero. This is almost never true and can cause significant errors. Using linear regression models, LRM considers the impact of multiple variables and, therefore, most accurately tracks energy performance. Unfortunately, because of the lack of either required data or technical expertise, some facilities cannot create valid linear regression models. For these cases, CEI is the only option. Here, the goal of this article is to develop a new methodology, modified energy intensity (MEI), which is more accurate than CEI, but requires much less data and is easier to implement than LRM. Using the underlying principle of LRM, this article first outlines the mathematical derivation of the equations for MEI, then explains them from an engineering perspective. Finally, the implementation of MEI is discussed.},

doi = {10.1080/01998595.2019.12054402},

journal = {Energy Engineering},

number = [2],

volume = [116],

place = {United States},

year = {2019},

month = {1}

}

Works referenced in this record:

##
Measuring industrial energy savings

journal, May 2008

- Kelly Kissock, J.; Eger, Carl
- Applied Energy, Vol. 85, Issue 5

##
Measuring Progress with Normalized Energy Intensity

journal, April 2011

- Lammers, Nathan; Kissock, Kelly; Abels, Brian
- SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing, Vol. 4, Issue 1

##
Comparison of One- and Two-Variable Linear Regression Models and Classic Energy Intensity for Energy Performance Tracking of Two Manufacturing Sectors

journal, August 2018

- Guo, Wei; Wenning, Thomas; Nimbalkar, Sachin
- Energy Engineering, Vol. 115, Issue 5