A New Methodology for Calculating The Energy Performance of Manufacturing Facilities
Abstract
Total energy comparison (TEC), classic energy intensity (CEI), and linear regression models (LRM) are the three most common approaches used to track the energy performance of manufacturing facilities. TEC simply compares the total energy consumption from utility bills. TEC is rarely used because it does not consider the variation of any factors that may affect energy consumption. One step better, CEI considers the variation of production rates by using the ratio of annual total energy consumption over annual total production. However, CEI fundamentally assumes that energy consumption is zero if the production rate is zero. This is almost never true and can cause significant errors. Using linear regression models, LRM considers the impact of multiple variables and, therefore, most accurately tracks energy performance. Unfortunately, because of the lack of either required data or technical expertise, some facilities cannot create valid linear regression models. For these cases, CEI is the only option. Here, the goal of this article is to develop a new methodology, modified energy intensity (MEI), which is more accurate than CEI, but requires much less data and is easier to implement than LRM. Using the underlying principle of LRM, this article first outlines the mathematical derivation of themore »
 Authors:

 Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
 Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)
 Publication Date:
 Research Org.:
 Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
 Sponsoring Org.:
 USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
 OSTI Identifier:
 1493115
 Grant/Contract Number:
 AC0500OR22725
 Resource Type:
 Accepted Manuscript
 Journal Name:
 Energy Engineering
 Additional Journal Information:
 Journal Volume: 116; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 01998595
 Publisher:
 Taylor & Francis
 Country of Publication:
 United States
 Language:
 English
 Subject:
 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION
Citation Formats
Guo, Wei, Wenning, Thomas, Nimbalkar, Sachin U., Thirumaran, Kiran, Armstrong, Kristina O., and Levine, Eli. A New Methodology for Calculating The Energy Performance of Manufacturing Facilities. United States: N. p., 2019.
Web. doi:10.1080/01998595.2019.12054402.
Guo, Wei, Wenning, Thomas, Nimbalkar, Sachin U., Thirumaran, Kiran, Armstrong, Kristina O., & Levine, Eli. A New Methodology for Calculating The Energy Performance of Manufacturing Facilities. United States. https://doi.org/10.1080/01998595.2019.12054402
Guo, Wei, Wenning, Thomas, Nimbalkar, Sachin U., Thirumaran, Kiran, Armstrong, Kristina O., and Levine, Eli. Thu .
"A New Methodology for Calculating The Energy Performance of Manufacturing Facilities". United States. https://doi.org/10.1080/01998595.2019.12054402. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1493115.
@article{osti_1493115,
title = {A New Methodology for Calculating The Energy Performance of Manufacturing Facilities},
author = {Guo, Wei and Wenning, Thomas and Nimbalkar, Sachin U. and Thirumaran, Kiran and Armstrong, Kristina O. and Levine, Eli},
abstractNote = {Total energy comparison (TEC), classic energy intensity (CEI), and linear regression models (LRM) are the three most common approaches used to track the energy performance of manufacturing facilities. TEC simply compares the total energy consumption from utility bills. TEC is rarely used because it does not consider the variation of any factors that may affect energy consumption. One step better, CEI considers the variation of production rates by using the ratio of annual total energy consumption over annual total production. However, CEI fundamentally assumes that energy consumption is zero if the production rate is zero. This is almost never true and can cause significant errors. Using linear regression models, LRM considers the impact of multiple variables and, therefore, most accurately tracks energy performance. Unfortunately, because of the lack of either required data or technical expertise, some facilities cannot create valid linear regression models. For these cases, CEI is the only option. Here, the goal of this article is to develop a new methodology, modified energy intensity (MEI), which is more accurate than CEI, but requires much less data and is easier to implement than LRM. Using the underlying principle of LRM, this article first outlines the mathematical derivation of the equations for MEI, then explains them from an engineering perspective. Finally, the implementation of MEI is discussed.},
doi = {10.1080/01998595.2019.12054402},
journal = {Energy Engineering},
number = 2,
volume = 116,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {1}
}
Works referenced in this record:
Measuring industrial energy savings
journal, May 2008
 Kelly Kissock, J.; Eger, Carl
 Applied Energy, Vol. 85, Issue 5
Measuring Progress with Normalized Energy Intensity
journal, April 2011
 Lammers, Nathan; Kissock, Kelly; Abels, Brian
 SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing, Vol. 4, Issue 1
Comparison of One and TwoVariable Linear Regression Models and Classic Energy Intensity for Energy Performance Tracking of Two Manufacturing Sectors
journal, August 2018
 Guo, Wei; Wenning, Thomas; Nimbalkar, Sachin
 Energy Engineering, Vol. 115, Issue 5