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Title: Agulhas Current Properties Shape Microbial Community Diversity and Potential Functionality

Abstract

Understanding the impact of oceanographic features on marine microbial ecosystems remains a major ecological endeavour. Here we assess microbial diversity, community structure and functional capacity along the Agulhas current system and the Subtropical convergence in the South Indian Ocean (SIO). Samples collected from the epipelagic, oxygen minimum and bathypelagic zones were analysed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon and metagenomic sequencing. In contrast to previous studies, we found high taxonomic richness in surface and deep water samples, but generally low richness for oxygen minimum zone communities. Beta-diversity analysis revealed significant dissimilarity between the three water depths. Most microbial communities were dominated by marine Gammaproteobacteria, with strikingly low levels of picocyanobacteria. Community composition was strongly influenced by specific environmental factors including depth, salinity, and the availability of both oxygen and light. Carbon, nitrogen and sulphur cycling capacity is the SIO was linked to several autotrophic and copiotrophic Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. Taken together, our data suggest that the environmental conditions in the Agulhas current system, particularly depth-related parameters, substantially influence microbial community structure. While the capacity for biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and sulphur is linked primarily by the dominant Gammaproteobacterial taxa, ecologically rare taxa drive carbon cycling.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [4]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of Pretoria (South Africa)
  2. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  3. Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa)
  4. Univ. of Pretoria (South Africa); VIB Centre for Plant Systems Biology, Ghent (Belgium); Ghent Univ. (Belgium)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1491161
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-135321
Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; biogeochemistry; nitrogen; carbon; sulphur; Agulhas current

Citation Formats

Phoma, Sandra, Vikram, Surendra, Jansson, Janet K., Ansorge, Isabelle J., Cowan, Don A., Van de Peer, Yves, and Makhalanyane, Thulani P. Agulhas Current Properties Shape Microbial Community Diversity and Potential Functionality. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-28939-0.
Phoma, Sandra, Vikram, Surendra, Jansson, Janet K., Ansorge, Isabelle J., Cowan, Don A., Van de Peer, Yves, & Makhalanyane, Thulani P. Agulhas Current Properties Shape Microbial Community Diversity and Potential Functionality. United States. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-28939-0.
Phoma, Sandra, Vikram, Surendra, Jansson, Janet K., Ansorge, Isabelle J., Cowan, Don A., Van de Peer, Yves, and Makhalanyane, Thulani P. Thu . "Agulhas Current Properties Shape Microbial Community Diversity and Potential Functionality". United States. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-28939-0. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1491161.
@article{osti_1491161,
title = {Agulhas Current Properties Shape Microbial Community Diversity and Potential Functionality},
author = {Phoma, Sandra and Vikram, Surendra and Jansson, Janet K. and Ansorge, Isabelle J. and Cowan, Don A. and Van de Peer, Yves and Makhalanyane, Thulani P.},
abstractNote = {Understanding the impact of oceanographic features on marine microbial ecosystems remains a major ecological endeavour. Here we assess microbial diversity, community structure and functional capacity along the Agulhas current system and the Subtropical convergence in the South Indian Ocean (SIO). Samples collected from the epipelagic, oxygen minimum and bathypelagic zones were analysed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon and metagenomic sequencing. In contrast to previous studies, we found high taxonomic richness in surface and deep water samples, but generally low richness for oxygen minimum zone communities. Beta-diversity analysis revealed significant dissimilarity between the three water depths. Most microbial communities were dominated by marine Gammaproteobacteria, with strikingly low levels of picocyanobacteria. Community composition was strongly influenced by specific environmental factors including depth, salinity, and the availability of both oxygen and light. Carbon, nitrogen and sulphur cycling capacity is the SIO was linked to several autotrophic and copiotrophic Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. Taken together, our data suggest that the environmental conditions in the Agulhas current system, particularly depth-related parameters, substantially influence microbial community structure. While the capacity for biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and sulphur is linked primarily by the dominant Gammaproteobacterial taxa, ecologically rare taxa drive carbon cycling.},
doi = {10.1038/s41598-018-28939-0},
journal = {Scientific Reports},
number = 1,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {7}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Agulhas Current circulation, location of Crossroads (CR) hydrographic stations and distribution of samples: (A) A map of the sampling area overlaid with the Crossroad cruise track (black line) and hydrographic stations (black bullets). The Agulhas Current system was determined using sea surface heights from Maps of Absolute Meanmore » Dynamic Topography (MADT, in meters), with its position averaged over the duration of sampling (9–14 May 2015). The subtropical front indicated by grey lines. Image courtesy of Marcel du Plessis. (B) An oceanographic profile of F-max, OMZ and Deep samples based on in situ measurements of temperature (°C), salinity (psu) and oxygen (m/l). B was generated using Ocean Data View (Schlitzer, R., Ocean Data View,« less

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