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Title: Aerosol and Urban Land Use Effect on Rainfall Around Cities in Indo-Gangetic Basin From Observations and Cloud Resolving Model Simulations

For this research, coupling of urban land use land cover (LULC) and aerosol loading on rainfall around cities in the Gangetic Basin (GB) is examined here. Long-term observations illustrate more rainfall at urban core and climatological downwind regions compared to the upwind regions of Kanpur, a metropolitan located in central GB. In addition, analysis of a 15-day cloud resolving simulation using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model also illustrated similar rainfall pattern around other major cities in the GB. Interestingly, the enhancement of downwind rainfall was greater than that over urban regions, and it was positively associated with both the urban area of the city and ambient aerosol loading during the propagating storm. Further, to gain a process-level understanding, a typical storm that propagated northwestward across Kanpur was simulated using WRF under three different scenarios. Case 1 has realistic LULC representation of Kanpur, while the grids representing the Kanpur urban region were replaced by cropland LULC pattern in case 2. Comparison illustrated that urban heat island effect caused convergence of winds and moisture in the lower troposphere, which enhances convection over urban region and induced more rainfall over the urban core compared to upwind regions. Case 3 is similarmore » to case 1 but lower aerosol concentration (by a factor of 100) over the storm region. Lastly, analysis show that aerosol induced microphysical changes delay the initiation of warm rain (over the upwind region) but enhance ice-phase particle formation in latter stages (over the urban and downwind regions) resulting in increase in downwind rainfall.« less
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [2] ; ORCiD logo [3] ;  [2] ;  [3]
  1. Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  2. Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India)
  3. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-130595
Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 123; Journal Issue: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; land use land cover; LULC; aerosol; Gangetic Basin; GB; Weather Research and Forecasting; WRF
OSTI Identifier:
1491154

Sarangi, Chandan, Tripathi, S. N., Qian, Yun, Kumar, Shailendra, and Ruby Leung, L.. Aerosol and Urban Land Use Effect on Rainfall Around Cities in Indo-Gangetic Basin From Observations and Cloud Resolving Model Simulations. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1002/2017JD028004.
Sarangi, Chandan, Tripathi, S. N., Qian, Yun, Kumar, Shailendra, & Ruby Leung, L.. Aerosol and Urban Land Use Effect on Rainfall Around Cities in Indo-Gangetic Basin From Observations and Cloud Resolving Model Simulations. United States. doi:10.1002/2017JD028004.
Sarangi, Chandan, Tripathi, S. N., Qian, Yun, Kumar, Shailendra, and Ruby Leung, L.. 2018. "Aerosol and Urban Land Use Effect on Rainfall Around Cities in Indo-Gangetic Basin From Observations and Cloud Resolving Model Simulations". United States. doi:10.1002/2017JD028004. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1491154.
@article{osti_1491154,
title = {Aerosol and Urban Land Use Effect on Rainfall Around Cities in Indo-Gangetic Basin From Observations and Cloud Resolving Model Simulations},
author = {Sarangi, Chandan and Tripathi, S. N. and Qian, Yun and Kumar, Shailendra and Ruby Leung, L.},
abstractNote = {For this research, coupling of urban land use land cover (LULC) and aerosol loading on rainfall around cities in the Gangetic Basin (GB) is examined here. Long-term observations illustrate more rainfall at urban core and climatological downwind regions compared to the upwind regions of Kanpur, a metropolitan located in central GB. In addition, analysis of a 15-day cloud resolving simulation using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model also illustrated similar rainfall pattern around other major cities in the GB. Interestingly, the enhancement of downwind rainfall was greater than that over urban regions, and it was positively associated with both the urban area of the city and ambient aerosol loading during the propagating storm. Further, to gain a process-level understanding, a typical storm that propagated northwestward across Kanpur was simulated using WRF under three different scenarios. Case 1 has realistic LULC representation of Kanpur, while the grids representing the Kanpur urban region were replaced by cropland LULC pattern in case 2. Comparison illustrated that urban heat island effect caused convergence of winds and moisture in the lower troposphere, which enhances convection over urban region and induced more rainfall over the urban core compared to upwind regions. Case 3 is similar to case 1 but lower aerosol concentration (by a factor of 100) over the storm region. Lastly, analysis show that aerosol induced microphysical changes delay the initiation of warm rain (over the upwind region) but enhance ice-phase particle formation in latter stages (over the urban and downwind regions) resulting in increase in downwind rainfall.},
doi = {10.1002/2017JD028004},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres},
number = 7,
volume = 123,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {3}
}