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Title: Impact of Electrical Contacts Design and Materials on the Stability of Ti Superconducting Transition Shape

Abstract

The South Pole Telescope SPT-3G camera utilizes Ti/Au transition edge sensors (TESs). A key requirement for these sensors is reproducibility and long-term stability of the superconducting (SC) transitions. Here, we discuss the impact of electrical contacts design and materials on the shape of the SC transitions. Using scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, and optical differential interference contrast microscopy, we observed the presence of unexpected defects of morphological nature on the titanium surface and their evolution in time in proximity to Nb contacts. We found direct correlation between the variations of the morphology and the SC transition shape. Experiments with different diffusion barriers between TES and Nb leads were performed to clarify the origin of this problem. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the reproducibility of superconducting transitions can be significantly improved by preventing diffusion processes in the TES-leads contact areas.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [4];  [8];  [8];  [1];  [8];  [9];  [6];  [5];  [6];  [1];  [1];  [10] more »;  [7];  [11];  [12];  [1];  [9];  [6];  [11];  [13];  [6];  [7];  [5];  [6];  [6];  [3];  [6];  [14];  [1];  [15];  [12];  [14];  [1];  [3];  [16];  [7];  [7];  [7];  [1];  [9];  [15];  [17];  [14];  [9];  [1];  [7];  [7];  [1];  [1];  [4];  [12];  [8];  [11];  [6];  [7];  [18];  [7];  [5];  [19];  [20];  [16];  [7];  [3];  [2];  [5];  [17];  [15];  [1];  [21];  [3];  [17] « less
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  2. Cardiff Univ., Cardiff (United Kingdom)
  3. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  4. Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)
  5. National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States)
  6. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  7. Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)
  8. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)
  9. McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada)
  10. McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada); Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto (Canada)
  11. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
  12. Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)
  13. Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  14. Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
  15. Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)
  16. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  17. Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)
  18. Three-Speed Logic, Inc.Vancouver (Canada)
  19. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)
  20. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
  21. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
National Science Foundation (NSF); Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation; USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
Contributing Org.:
SPT
OSTI Identifier:
1491023
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1490471; OSTI ID: 1497093
Report Number(s):
FERMILAB-PUB-18-741-AE-PPD
Journal ID: ISSN 0022-2291; 140107
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357; AC02-76SF00515; PLR-1248097; PHY-1125897; AST-0956135; GBMF 947; AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Low Temperature Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 193; Journal Issue: 5-6; Journal ID: ISSN 0022-2291
Publisher:
Plenum Press
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; Ti films; Transition Edge Sensor; bolometer; diffusion; 79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; 46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Citation Formats

Yefremenko, Volodymyr, Ade, Peter A. R., Ahmed, Zeeshan, Anderson, Adam J., Austermann, Jason E., Avva, Jessica S., Thakur, Robitan Basu, Bender, Amy N., Benson, Bradford A., Carlstrom, John E., Carter, Faustin W., Cecil, Thomas, Chang, Clarence L., Cliche, Jean -Francois, Cukierman, Ariel, Denison, Edward V., de Haan, Tijmen, Ding, Junjia, Divan, Ralu N. S., Dobbs, Matt A., Dutcher, Daniel, Everett, Wenderline, Foster, Allen, Gannon, Renae N., Gilbert, Adam, Groh, John, Halverson, Nils W., Harke-Hosemann, Angelina H., Harrington, Nicholas L., Henning, Jason W., Hilton, Gene C., Holzapfel, William L., Huang, Nicholas, Irwin, Kent D., Jeong, Oliver B., Jonas, Michelle, Khaire, Trupti, Kofman, Anna M., Korman, Milo, Kubik, Donna L., Kuhlmann, Steve, Kuo, Chao -Lin, Lee, Adrian T., Lowitz, Amy E., Meyer, Stephen S., Michalik, Daniel, Miller, Christina Suzanne, Montgomery, Joshua, Nadolski, Andrew, Natoli, Tyler J., Nguyen, Hogan, Noble, Gavin, Novosad, Valentine, Padin, Stephen, Pan, Zhaodi, Pearson, John, Posada, Chrystian M., Rahlin, Alexandra, Ruhl, John E., Saunders, L. J., Sayre, James T., Shirley, Ian, Shirokoff, Erik D., Smecher, Graeme, Sobrin, Joshua A., Stan, Liliana, Stark, Antony A., Story, Kyle T., Suzuki, Aritoki, Tang, Qing Yang, Thompson, Keith L., Tucker, Carole E., Vale, Leila R., Vanderlinde, Keith, Vieira, Joaquin D., Wang, Gensheng, Whitehorn, Nathan, Yoon, Ki Won, and Young, Matt. Impact of Electrical Contacts Design and Materials on the Stability of Ti Superconducting Transition Shape. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1007/s10909-018-2040-y.
Yefremenko, Volodymyr, Ade, Peter A. R., Ahmed, Zeeshan, Anderson, Adam J., Austermann, Jason E., Avva, Jessica S., Thakur, Robitan Basu, Bender, Amy N., Benson, Bradford A., Carlstrom, John E., Carter, Faustin W., Cecil, Thomas, Chang, Clarence L., Cliche, Jean -Francois, Cukierman, Ariel, Denison, Edward V., de Haan, Tijmen, Ding, Junjia, Divan, Ralu N. S., Dobbs, Matt A., Dutcher, Daniel, Everett, Wenderline, Foster, Allen, Gannon, Renae N., Gilbert, Adam, Groh, John, Halverson, Nils W., Harke-Hosemann, Angelina H., Harrington, Nicholas L., Henning, Jason W., Hilton, Gene C., Holzapfel, William L., Huang, Nicholas, Irwin, Kent D., Jeong, Oliver B., Jonas, Michelle, Khaire, Trupti, Kofman, Anna M., Korman, Milo, Kubik, Donna L., Kuhlmann, Steve, Kuo, Chao -Lin, Lee, Adrian T., Lowitz, Amy E., Meyer, Stephen S., Michalik, Daniel, Miller, Christina Suzanne, Montgomery, Joshua, Nadolski, Andrew, Natoli, Tyler J., Nguyen, Hogan, Noble, Gavin, Novosad, Valentine, Padin, Stephen, Pan, Zhaodi, Pearson, John, Posada, Chrystian M., Rahlin, Alexandra, Ruhl, John E., Saunders, L. J., Sayre, James T., Shirley, Ian, Shirokoff, Erik D., Smecher, Graeme, Sobrin, Joshua A., Stan, Liliana, Stark, Antony A., Story, Kyle T., Suzuki, Aritoki, Tang, Qing Yang, Thompson, Keith L., Tucker, Carole E., Vale, Leila R., Vanderlinde, Keith, Vieira, Joaquin D., Wang, Gensheng, Whitehorn, Nathan, Yoon, Ki Won, & Young, Matt. Impact of Electrical Contacts Design and Materials on the Stability of Ti Superconducting Transition Shape. United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s10909-018-2040-y
Yefremenko, Volodymyr, Ade, Peter A. R., Ahmed, Zeeshan, Anderson, Adam J., Austermann, Jason E., Avva, Jessica S., Thakur, Robitan Basu, Bender, Amy N., Benson, Bradford A., Carlstrom, John E., Carter, Faustin W., Cecil, Thomas, Chang, Clarence L., Cliche, Jean -Francois, Cukierman, Ariel, Denison, Edward V., de Haan, Tijmen, Ding, Junjia, Divan, Ralu N. S., Dobbs, Matt A., Dutcher, Daniel, Everett, Wenderline, Foster, Allen, Gannon, Renae N., Gilbert, Adam, Groh, John, Halverson, Nils W., Harke-Hosemann, Angelina H., Harrington, Nicholas L., Henning, Jason W., Hilton, Gene C., Holzapfel, William L., Huang, Nicholas, Irwin, Kent D., Jeong, Oliver B., Jonas, Michelle, Khaire, Trupti, Kofman, Anna M., Korman, Milo, Kubik, Donna L., Kuhlmann, Steve, Kuo, Chao -Lin, Lee, Adrian T., Lowitz, Amy E., Meyer, Stephen S., Michalik, Daniel, Miller, Christina Suzanne, Montgomery, Joshua, Nadolski, Andrew, Natoli, Tyler J., Nguyen, Hogan, Noble, Gavin, Novosad, Valentine, Padin, Stephen, Pan, Zhaodi, Pearson, John, Posada, Chrystian M., Rahlin, Alexandra, Ruhl, John E., Saunders, L. J., Sayre, James T., Shirley, Ian, Shirokoff, Erik D., Smecher, Graeme, Sobrin, Joshua A., Stan, Liliana, Stark, Antony A., Story, Kyle T., Suzuki, Aritoki, Tang, Qing Yang, Thompson, Keith L., Tucker, Carole E., Vale, Leila R., Vanderlinde, Keith, Vieira, Joaquin D., Wang, Gensheng, Whitehorn, Nathan, Yoon, Ki Won, and Young, Matt. Thu . "Impact of Electrical Contacts Design and Materials on the Stability of Ti Superconducting Transition Shape". United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s10909-018-2040-y. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1491023.
@article{osti_1491023,
title = {Impact of Electrical Contacts Design and Materials on the Stability of Ti Superconducting Transition Shape},
author = {Yefremenko, Volodymyr and Ade, Peter A. R. and Ahmed, Zeeshan and Anderson, Adam J. and Austermann, Jason E. and Avva, Jessica S. and Thakur, Robitan Basu and Bender, Amy N. and Benson, Bradford A. and Carlstrom, John E. and Carter, Faustin W. and Cecil, Thomas and Chang, Clarence L. and Cliche, Jean -Francois and Cukierman, Ariel and Denison, Edward V. and de Haan, Tijmen and Ding, Junjia and Divan, Ralu N. S. and Dobbs, Matt A. and Dutcher, Daniel and Everett, Wenderline and Foster, Allen and Gannon, Renae N. and Gilbert, Adam and Groh, John and Halverson, Nils W. and Harke-Hosemann, Angelina H. and Harrington, Nicholas L. and Henning, Jason W. and Hilton, Gene C. and Holzapfel, William L. and Huang, Nicholas and Irwin, Kent D. and Jeong, Oliver B. and Jonas, Michelle and Khaire, Trupti and Kofman, Anna M. and Korman, Milo and Kubik, Donna L. and Kuhlmann, Steve and Kuo, Chao -Lin and Lee, Adrian T. and Lowitz, Amy E. and Meyer, Stephen S. and Michalik, Daniel and Miller, Christina Suzanne and Montgomery, Joshua and Nadolski, Andrew and Natoli, Tyler J. and Nguyen, Hogan and Noble, Gavin and Novosad, Valentine and Padin, Stephen and Pan, Zhaodi and Pearson, John and Posada, Chrystian M. and Rahlin, Alexandra and Ruhl, John E. and Saunders, L. J. and Sayre, James T. and Shirley, Ian and Shirokoff, Erik D. and Smecher, Graeme and Sobrin, Joshua A. and Stan, Liliana and Stark, Antony A. and Story, Kyle T. and Suzuki, Aritoki and Tang, Qing Yang and Thompson, Keith L. and Tucker, Carole E. and Vale, Leila R. and Vanderlinde, Keith and Vieira, Joaquin D. and Wang, Gensheng and Whitehorn, Nathan and Yoon, Ki Won and Young, Matt},
abstractNote = {The South Pole Telescope SPT-3G camera utilizes Ti/Au transition edge sensors (TESs). A key requirement for these sensors is reproducibility and long-term stability of the superconducting (SC) transitions. Here, we discuss the impact of electrical contacts design and materials on the shape of the SC transitions. Using scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, and optical differential interference contrast microscopy, we observed the presence of unexpected defects of morphological nature on the titanium surface and their evolution in time in proximity to Nb contacts. We found direct correlation between the variations of the morphology and the SC transition shape. Experiments with different diffusion barriers between TES and Nb leads were performed to clarify the origin of this problem. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the reproducibility of superconducting transitions can be significantly improved by preventing diffusion processes in the TES-leads contact areas.},
doi = {10.1007/s10909-018-2040-y},
journal = {Journal of Low Temperature Physics},
number = 5-6,
volume = 193,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {8}
}

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