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Title: Using Graphene Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy to Study in Situ Nanocrystal Etching

Abstract

Graphene liquid cell electron microscopy provides the ability to observe nanoscale chemical transformations and dynamics as the reactions are occurring in liquid environments. This manuscript describes the process for making graphene liquid cells through the example of graphene liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments of gold nanocrystal etching. The protocol for making graphene liquid cells involves coating gold, holey-carbon TEM grids with chemical vapor deposition graphene and then using those graphene-coated grids to encapsulate liquid between two graphene surfaces. These pockets of liquid, with the nanomaterial of interest, are imaged in the electron microscope to see the dynamics of the nanoscale process, in this case the oxidative etching of gold nanorods. By controlling the electron beam dose rate, which modulates the etching species in the liquid cell, the underlying mechanisms of how atoms are removed from nanocrystals to form different facets and shapes can be better understood. Graphene liquid cell TEM has the advantages of high spatial resolution, compatibility with traditional TEM holders, and low start-up costs for research groups. Current limitations include delicate sample preparation, lack of flow capability, and reliance on electron beam-generated radiolysis products to induce reactions. With further development and control, graphene liquid cell maymore » become a ubiquitous technique in nanomaterials and biology, and is already being used to study mechanisms governing growth, etching, and self-assembly processes of nanomaterials in liquid on the single particle level.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2]
  1. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  2. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kavli Energy NanoScience Institute, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Materials Sciences & Engineering Division
OSTI Identifier:
1490708
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Visualized Experiments
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 135; Journal Issue: e57665; Journal ID: ISSN 1940-087X
Publisher:
MyJoVE Corp.
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Hauwiller, Matthew R., Ondry, Justin C., and Alivisatos, A. Paul. Using Graphene Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy to Study in Situ Nanocrystal Etching. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.3791/57665.
Hauwiller, Matthew R., Ondry, Justin C., & Alivisatos, A. Paul. Using Graphene Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy to Study in Situ Nanocrystal Etching. United States. doi:10.3791/57665.
Hauwiller, Matthew R., Ondry, Justin C., and Alivisatos, A. Paul. Thu . "Using Graphene Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy to Study in Situ Nanocrystal Etching". United States. doi:10.3791/57665. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1490708.
@article{osti_1490708,
title = {Using Graphene Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy to Study in Situ Nanocrystal Etching},
author = {Hauwiller, Matthew R. and Ondry, Justin C. and Alivisatos, A. Paul},
abstractNote = {Graphene liquid cell electron microscopy provides the ability to observe nanoscale chemical transformations and dynamics as the reactions are occurring in liquid environments. This manuscript describes the process for making graphene liquid cells through the example of graphene liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments of gold nanocrystal etching. The protocol for making graphene liquid cells involves coating gold, holey-carbon TEM grids with chemical vapor deposition graphene and then using those graphene-coated grids to encapsulate liquid between two graphene surfaces. These pockets of liquid, with the nanomaterial of interest, are imaged in the electron microscope to see the dynamics of the nanoscale process, in this case the oxidative etching of gold nanorods. By controlling the electron beam dose rate, which modulates the etching species in the liquid cell, the underlying mechanisms of how atoms are removed from nanocrystals to form different facets and shapes can be better understood. Graphene liquid cell TEM has the advantages of high spatial resolution, compatibility with traditional TEM holders, and low start-up costs for research groups. Current limitations include delicate sample preparation, lack of flow capability, and reliance on electron beam-generated radiolysis products to induce reactions. With further development and control, graphene liquid cell may become a ubiquitous technique in nanomaterials and biology, and is already being used to study mechanisms governing growth, etching, and self-assembly processes of nanomaterials in liquid on the single particle level.},
doi = {10.3791/57665},
journal = {Journal of Visualized Experiments},
number = e57665,
volume = 135,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {5}
}

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Cited by: 4 works
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Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Schematic of graphene liquid cell TEM technique. (A) To assemble a graphene liquid cell, a droplet of solution is placed on a graphene-coated holey carbon TEM grid. A second graphene-coated grid is placed on top of the droplet to form a pocket. Note that this image is notmore » to scale and the liquid droplet is about 33% too large. (B) Zoomed-in schematic of a liquid pocket during TEM imaging of gold nanorods. This cartoon is also not to scale.« less

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