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Title: Femtosecond diffraction studies of solid and liquid phase changes in shock-compressed bismuth

Abstract

Bismuth has long been a prototypical system for investigating phase transformations and melting at high pressure. Despite decades of experimental study, however, the lattice-level response of Bi to rapid (shock) compression and the relationship between structures occurring dynamically and those observed during slow (static) compression, are still not clearly understood. We have determined the structural response of shock-compressed Bi to 68 GPa using femtosecond X-ray diffraction, thereby revealing the phase transition sequence and equation-of-state in unprecedented detail for the first time. We show that shocked-Bi exhibits a marked departure from equilibrium behavior - the incommensurate Bi-III phase is not observed, but rather a new metastable phase, and the Bi-V phase is formed at significantly lower pressures compared to static compression studies. We also directly measure structural changes in a shocked liquid for the first time. In conclusion, these observations reveal new behaviour in the solid and liquid phases of a shocked material and give important insights into the validity of comparing static and dynamic datasets.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [6]; ORCiD logo [6];  [3];  [7]; ORCiD logo [8];  [9];  [9];  [10];  [9];  [3];  [2]
  1. Univ. of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  2. Univ. of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)
  3. Univ. of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)
  4. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  5. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  6. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  7. Sorbonne Univ., Paris (France)
  8. Atomic Weapons Establishment, Reading (United Kingdom)
  9. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  10. Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1490672
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1512576
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-761084
Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322; PII: 35260
Grant/Contract Number:  
EP/J017256/1; EP/J017051/1; B595954; AC52-07NA27344; AC52-06NA25396; AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Physics - Condensed matter physics

Citation Formats

Gorman, M. G., Coleman, A. L., Briggs, R., McWilliams, R. S., McGonegle, D., Bolme, C. A., Gleason, A. E., Galtier, E., Lee, H. J., Granados, E., Śliwa, M., Sanloup, C., Rothman, S., Fratanduono, D. E., Smith, R. F., Collins, G. W., Eggert, J. H., Wark, J. S., and McMahon, M. I. Femtosecond diffraction studies of solid and liquid phase changes in shock-compressed bismuth. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-35260-3.
Gorman, M. G., Coleman, A. L., Briggs, R., McWilliams, R. S., McGonegle, D., Bolme, C. A., Gleason, A. E., Galtier, E., Lee, H. J., Granados, E., Śliwa, M., Sanloup, C., Rothman, S., Fratanduono, D. E., Smith, R. F., Collins, G. W., Eggert, J. H., Wark, J. S., & McMahon, M. I. Femtosecond diffraction studies of solid and liquid phase changes in shock-compressed bismuth. United States. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-35260-3.
Gorman, M. G., Coleman, A. L., Briggs, R., McWilliams, R. S., McGonegle, D., Bolme, C. A., Gleason, A. E., Galtier, E., Lee, H. J., Granados, E., Śliwa, M., Sanloup, C., Rothman, S., Fratanduono, D. E., Smith, R. F., Collins, G. W., Eggert, J. H., Wark, J. S., and McMahon, M. I. Fri . "Femtosecond diffraction studies of solid and liquid phase changes in shock-compressed bismuth". United States. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-35260-3. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1490672.
@article{osti_1490672,
title = {Femtosecond diffraction studies of solid and liquid phase changes in shock-compressed bismuth},
author = {Gorman, M. G. and Coleman, A. L. and Briggs, R. and McWilliams, R. S. and McGonegle, D. and Bolme, C. A. and Gleason, A. E. and Galtier, E. and Lee, H. J. and Granados, E. and Śliwa, M. and Sanloup, C. and Rothman, S. and Fratanduono, D. E. and Smith, R. F. and Collins, G. W. and Eggert, J. H. and Wark, J. S. and McMahon, M. I.},
abstractNote = {Bismuth has long been a prototypical system for investigating phase transformations and melting at high pressure. Despite decades of experimental study, however, the lattice-level response of Bi to rapid (shock) compression and the relationship between structures occurring dynamically and those observed during slow (static) compression, are still not clearly understood. We have determined the structural response of shock-compressed Bi to 68 GPa using femtosecond X-ray diffraction, thereby revealing the phase transition sequence and equation-of-state in unprecedented detail for the first time. We show that shocked-Bi exhibits a marked departure from equilibrium behavior - the incommensurate Bi-III phase is not observed, but rather a new metastable phase, and the Bi-V phase is formed at significantly lower pressures compared to static compression studies. We also directly measure structural changes in a shocked liquid for the first time. In conclusion, these observations reveal new behaviour in the solid and liquid phases of a shocked material and give important insights into the validity of comparing static and dynamic datasets.},
doi = {10.1038/s41598-018-35260-3},
journal = {Scientific Reports},
number = 1,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {11}
}

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Cited by: 6 works
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Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Experimental Setup and 2D diffraction data. (a) CSPAD detectors were arranged in a transmission Debye-Scherrer geometry in the MEC vacuum chamber. Dual drive beams were incident on target at angle of 15° and the XFEL beam probed the target at 30° from the target normal. The VISAR lasermore » probed normal to the rear surface of the target. (b) 2D raw diffraction images from three different solid phases of Bi obtained on compression (profiles (i–iii)) and the liquid phase (profiles (iv,v)). The initial microstructure of the Bi starting material is retained as the Bi-I phase is compressed, but it drastically changed through the reconstructive phase transitions (profiles (ii,iii)). The strongest diffraction peaks from the high-pressure phase are indicated with arrows. Diffraction peaks from uncompressed Bi-I were observed in all diffraction profiles obtained before the shock reached the target rear surface.« less

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