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Title: Advanced ACTPol Low-Frequency Array: Readout and Characterization of Prototype 27 and 39 GHz Transition Edge Sensors

Abstract

Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) is a third-generation polarization upgrade to the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, designed to observe the cosmic microwave background (CMB). AdvACT expands on the 90 and 150 GHz transition edge sensor (TES) bolometer arrays of the ACT Polarimeter (ACTPol), adding both high-frequency (HF, 150/230 GHz) and low-frequency (LF, 27/39 GHz) multichroic arrays. The addition of the high- and low-frequency detectors allows for the characterization of synchrotron and spinning dust emission at the low frequencies and foreground emission from galactic dust and dusty star-forming galaxies at the high frequencies. The increased spectral coverage of AdvACT will enable a wide range of CMB science, such as improving constraints on dark energy, the sum of the neutrino masses, and the existence of primordial gravitational waves. The LF array will be the final AdvACT array, replacing one of the MF arrays for a single season. Prior to the fabrication of the final LF detector array, we designed and characterized prototype TES bolometers. Detector geometries in these prototypes are varied in order to inform and optimize the bolometer designs for the LF array, which requires significantly lower noise levels and saturation powers (as low as ~1 pW) than the higher-frequency detectors. Here we presentmore » results from tests of the first LF prototype TES detectors for AdvACT, including measurements of the saturation power, critical temperature, thermal conductance, and time constants. Finally, we also describe the modifications to the time-division SQUID readout architecture compared to the MF and HF arrays.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [3];  [4];  [1];  [6];  [1];  [7];  [3];  [1];  [1];  [8]
  1. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept of Physics
  2. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied and Engineering Physics
  3. Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Joseph Henry Lab. of Physics
  4. National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States). Quantum Devices Group
  5. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  6. Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  7. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics
  8. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1490482
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; 1440226; NNX13AE56G; NNX14AB58G; NNX13AL53H
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Low Temperature Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 193; Journal Issue: 5-6; Journal ID: ISSN 0022-2291
Publisher:
Plenum Press
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; Cosmic microwave background; Transition edge sensor; Bolometer; Polarimetry; Advanced ACTPol; Synchrotron

Citation Formats

Koopman, B. J., Cothard, N. F., Choi, S. K., Crowley, K. T., Duff, S. M., Henderson, S. W., Ho, S. P., Hubmayr, J., Gallardo, P. A., Nati, F., Niemack, M. D., Simon, S. M., Staggs, S. T., Stevens, J. R., Vavagiakis, E. M., and Wollack, E. J. Advanced ACTPol Low-Frequency Array: Readout and Characterization of Prototype 27 and 39 GHz Transition Edge Sensors. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1007/s10909-018-1957-5.
Koopman, B. J., Cothard, N. F., Choi, S. K., Crowley, K. T., Duff, S. M., Henderson, S. W., Ho, S. P., Hubmayr, J., Gallardo, P. A., Nati, F., Niemack, M. D., Simon, S. M., Staggs, S. T., Stevens, J. R., Vavagiakis, E. M., & Wollack, E. J. Advanced ACTPol Low-Frequency Array: Readout and Characterization of Prototype 27 and 39 GHz Transition Edge Sensors. United States. doi:10.1007/s10909-018-1957-5.
Koopman, B. J., Cothard, N. F., Choi, S. K., Crowley, K. T., Duff, S. M., Henderson, S. W., Ho, S. P., Hubmayr, J., Gallardo, P. A., Nati, F., Niemack, M. D., Simon, S. M., Staggs, S. T., Stevens, J. R., Vavagiakis, E. M., and Wollack, E. J. Fri . "Advanced ACTPol Low-Frequency Array: Readout and Characterization of Prototype 27 and 39 GHz Transition Edge Sensors". United States. doi:10.1007/s10909-018-1957-5. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1490482.
@article{osti_1490482,
title = {Advanced ACTPol Low-Frequency Array: Readout and Characterization of Prototype 27 and 39 GHz Transition Edge Sensors},
author = {Koopman, B. J. and Cothard, N. F. and Choi, S. K. and Crowley, K. T. and Duff, S. M. and Henderson, S. W. and Ho, S. P. and Hubmayr, J. and Gallardo, P. A. and Nati, F. and Niemack, M. D. and Simon, S. M. and Staggs, S. T. and Stevens, J. R. and Vavagiakis, E. M. and Wollack, E. J.},
abstractNote = {Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) is a third-generation polarization upgrade to the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, designed to observe the cosmic microwave background (CMB). AdvACT expands on the 90 and 150 GHz transition edge sensor (TES) bolometer arrays of the ACT Polarimeter (ACTPol), adding both high-frequency (HF, 150/230 GHz) and low-frequency (LF, 27/39 GHz) multichroic arrays. The addition of the high- and low-frequency detectors allows for the characterization of synchrotron and spinning dust emission at the low frequencies and foreground emission from galactic dust and dusty star-forming galaxies at the high frequencies. The increased spectral coverage of AdvACT will enable a wide range of CMB science, such as improving constraints on dark energy, the sum of the neutrino masses, and the existence of primordial gravitational waves. The LF array will be the final AdvACT array, replacing one of the MF arrays for a single season. Prior to the fabrication of the final LF detector array, we designed and characterized prototype TES bolometers. Detector geometries in these prototypes are varied in order to inform and optimize the bolometer designs for the LF array, which requires significantly lower noise levels and saturation powers (as low as ~1 pW) than the higher-frequency detectors. Here we present results from tests of the first LF prototype TES detectors for AdvACT, including measurements of the saturation power, critical temperature, thermal conductance, and time constants. Finally, we also describe the modifications to the time-division SQUID readout architecture compared to the MF and HF arrays.},
doi = {10.1007/s10909-018-1957-5},
journal = {Journal of Low Temperature Physics},
number = 5-6,
volume = 193,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {5}
}

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Figures / Tables:

Fig. 1 Fig. 1: Fig. 1 (Left): LF prototype transition edge sensors with different leg geometries. The devices are labeled 1 to 6 from left to right. Table 1 lists the design frequency and leg parameters for each of the devices. Inset to this figure in the upper left is a closemore » up of a single labeled TES island. (Right): LF prototype TESes with different PdAu/AlMn volumes. The devices are labeled A to F from left to right. Devices A through D have no PdAu, with devices A and D having the full AlMn volume. Device B only has AlMn in the central region that forms the TES, while device C has a reduced area of AlMn. Devices F has a full volume of PdAu and AlMn and device E has a patterned reduction of PdAu, referred to as “swissed”. (Color figure online.)« less

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Works referenced in this record:

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    Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.